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As the war drew to a close, Woodrow Wilson set forth his plan for a "just peace." Wilson believed that basic flaws in global relations produced an unhealthy climate the led inexorably come the civilization War. His Fourteen point out outlined his vision for a safer world. Wilson dubbed for an end to mystery diplomacy, a palliation of armaments, and freedom of the seas. He asserted that to reduce to profession barriers, same adjustment that colonies, and respect for nationwide self-determination would mitigate economic and nationalist sentiments that lead to war. Finally, Wilson proposed an global organization comprising representatives of all the world"s countries that would certainly serve together a forum against allowing any type of conflict come escalate. Unfortunately, Wilson could not i charged his civilization view ~ above the victorious allied Powers. Once they met in Paris to hammer the end the regards to the peace, the european leaders had actually other ideas.
The Paris tranquility Conference
Most the the decisions made in ~ the Paris peace Conference were made through the huge Four, consists of president Wilson, David Lloyd George of an excellent Britain, Georges Clemenceau that France, and Vittorio Orlando that Italy. The European leader were no interested in a simply peace. They were interested in retribution. Over Wilson"s protests, lock ignored the Fourteen points one by one. Germany to be to recognize guilt because that the war and pay endless reparations. The German armed forces was reduced to a domestic police force and also its region was truncated to benefit the new nations of east Europe. The areas of Alsace and Lorraine were revived to France. German swarms were handed in trusteeship to the victorious Allies. No provisions to be made come end secret diplomacy or preserve flexibility of the seas. Wilson did gain approval because that his proposal for a organization of Nations. Dismayed through the all at once results, however hopeful the a strong League can prevent future wars, he reverted to present the contract of Versailles to the Senate.
Defeating the league of Nations
Unfortunately because that Wilson, he was met through stiff opposition. The Republican leader of the Senate, Henry Cabot Lodge, was very suspicious that Wilson and his treaty. Article X the the organization of Nations required the United says to respect the territorial integrity of member states. Although there was no necessity compelling an American explanation of war, the joined States might be bound come impose an financial embargo or come sever diplomatic relations. Lodge perceived the league as a supranational federal government that would limit the power of the American government from identify its own affairs. Others thought the organization was the kind of entangling alliance the unified States had actually avoided due to the fact that George Washington"s bye Address. Lodge sabotaged the League agreement by declaring the United states exempt from post X. He attached reservations, or amendments, to the treaty to this effect. Wilson, bedridden from a debilitating stroke, to be unable to accept these changes. That asked Senate democracy to vote against the treaty of Versailles uneven the Lodge reservations were dropped. Neither next budged, and the contract went down to defeat.
Why go the United states fail come ratify the Versailles Treaty and also join the league of Nations? personal enmity between Wilson and also Lodge played a part. Wilson might have prudently invite a significant Republican to accompany him to Paris to aid ensure its later passage. Wilson"s fading health eliminated the opportunity of make a strong an individual appeal on behalf of the treaty. Ethnic groups in the united States aided its defeat. German american felt their fatherland to be being treated also harshly. Italian american felt more territory should have been awarded come Italy. Irish Americans criticized the treaty for failing to address the issue of ireland independence. Diehard American isolationists worried about a permanent worldwide involvement. The stubborness of chairman Wilson led him come ask his very own party to scuttle the treaty. The final results of every these determinants had mammoth longterm consequences. Without the joining of the world"s newest superpower, the league of countries was doomed come failure. Over the following two decades, the United says would sit ~ above the sidelines as the unjust contract of Versailles and the ineffective league of countries would collection the phase for an also bloodier, more devastating clash.
Henry Cabot LodgeThe main Senate biography of Henry Cabot Lodge who led the congressional opposition to the league of Nations.
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Wilson and also the organization of NationsIn 22 days chairman Wilson traveled 8000 miles across the joined States and also gave 38 speeches in assistance of the organization of Nations, and the gruelling speed brought about a paralyzing stroke.
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Listen as Henry Cabot Lodge renders his case versus Woodrow Wilson"s organization of Nations, here as a RealAudio or wav file.Learn More...
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