l>Carl LinnaeusCarl Linnaeus (1707-1778)Carl Linnaeus, additionally known together Carl von Linné or Carolus Linnaeus, is often referred to as the father of Taxonomy. His system for naming, ranking, and also classifying biology is still in vast use this particular day (with plenty of changes). Hisideas on group have influenced generations of biologists duringand after ~ his very own lifetime, also those opposed to the philosophicaland theological root of his work.Biography the LinnaeusHe to be born on may 23, 1707, in ~ Stenbrohult, in the province ofSmåland in southern Sweden. His father,Nils Ingemarsson Linnaeus, was both an avid gardener and a Lutheran pastor,and Carl proved a deep love that plants and a fascination v their names indigenous avery early on age. Carl disappointed his parental by reflecting neither aptitude nordesire because that the priesthood, however his family members was rather consoled whenLinnaeus gotten in the college of Lund in 1727 to study medicine. A yearlater, he moved to the university of Uppsala, the most prestigiousuniversity in Sweden. However, its clinical facilities had been neglected andhad fallen into disrepair. Many of Linaeus"s time at Uppsala to be spentcollecting and also studying plants, his true love. At the time, training inbotany was component of the medical curriculum, because that every doctor had toprepare and also prescribe drugs derived from medicinal plants. Regardless of being inhard financial straits, Linnaeus placed a botanical and also ethnographical exploration to Lapland in 1731 (the portrait above showsLinnaeus together a young man, wearing a version of the timeless Lappcostume and also holding a shaman"s drum). In 1734 he mounted another exploration to central Sweden. Linnaeus went to the Netherlands in 1735, promptly finished his medical level at theUniversity that Harderwijk, and also then enrolled in the university of Leiden forfurther studies. That same year, he published the first edition that hisclassification of life things, the Systema Naturae. Throughout theseyears, that met or synchronized with Europe"s great botanists, and continuedto construct his classification scheme. Returning to Sweden in 1738, the practicedmedicine (specializing in the therapy of syphilis) and also lectured in Stockholm prior to being forgive a professorship in ~ Uppsala in 1741. In ~ Uppsala, he revived the University"s factory garden (arranging the tree according to his device of classification), made three more expeditions to miscellaneous parts the Sweden, and also inspired a generation of students. He was instrumentalin arranging to have his students sent out on trade and also exploration voyages to all parts of the world: nineteen the Linnaeus"s students went the end on these trips of discovery. Maybe his most famous student, Daniel Solander, was the naturalist onCaptain James Cook"s very first round-the-world voyage, and also brought earlier the very first plant collection from Australia and also the south Pacific come Europe. Anders Sparrman,another of Linnaeus"s students, to be a botanist ~ above Cook"s second voyage. An additional student, Pehr Kalm, traveled in the northeastern American nests for 3 years researching American plants.Yet another, Carl Peter Thunberg, to be the first Western naturalist come visit Japan in over a century; he not just studied the flora the Japan, yet taught western medicineto Japanese practicioners. Still others of his students travel to south America, southeast Asia, Africa, and also the middle East. Many died on your travels.
Linnaeus continued to revise his Systema Naturae, which flourished from a slim pamphlet come a multivolume work, as his principles were modified and as more and more plant and animal specimens were sent to him from every corner of the globe.(The picture at right mirrors his scientific description of the human types from the ninth edition of Systema Naturae. At the time he ad to mankind as Homo diurnis, or "man that the day". Click the photo to see an enlargement.) Linnaeus was also deeply affiliated with ways to make the sweden economy an ext self-sufficient and less dependence on international trade, either by acclimatizing valuable plantsto thrive in Sweden, or by finding indigenous substitutes. Unfortunately, Linnaeus"sattempts to flourish cacao, coffee, tea, bananas, rice, and mulberries proved unsuccessfulin Sweden"s cold climate. His attempts to boost the economy (and to protect against the faminesthat quiet struck Sweden at the time) through finding indigenous Swedish plants that might beused as tea, coffee, flour, and fodder were likewise not usually successful. That still uncovered time to exercise medicine, eventuallybecoming an individual physician to the Swedish imperial family. In 1758 he bought the manor legacy of Hammarby, external Uppsala, where he developed a smallmuseum for his extensive personal collections. In 1761 he wasgranted nobility, and also became Carl von Linné. His later years weremarked by increasing depression and pessimism. Lingering top top for several yearsafter suffering what was probably a collection of gentle strokes in 1774, he passed away in 1778. His son, additionally named Carl, flourished to his professorship at Uppsala, yet never was noteworthy as a botanist. When Carl the Younger passed away five years later with noheirs, his mother and also sisters sold the elder Linnaeus"s library, manuscripts, andnatural background collections to the English natural historian teacher James Edward Smith,who started the Linnean society of London come take care of them.Linnaeus"s clinical ThoughtLinnaeus loved nature deeply, and constantly retained a sense of wonder in ~ the people of livingthings. His spiritual beliefs led that to herbal theology, a institution of thoughtdating ago to Biblical times but especially flourishing approximately 1700:since God has produced the world, the is possible to understand God"s wisdom bystudying His creation. Together he wrote in thepreface to a late edition the Systema Naturae: Creationis telluris estgloria Dei ex opere Naturae per Hominem solum -- The Earth"s development isthe glory the God, as viewed from the works of Nature by man alone. The research of nature would reveal the divine Order ofGod"s creation, and it was the naturalist"s job to build a "naturalclassification" that would reveal this stimulate in the universe. However, Linnaeus"s plant taxonomy to be based exclusively on the number and arrangement that the reproductive organs; a plant"s course was established by itsstamens (male organs), and its bespeak by its pistils (female organs). This result inmany groupings that appeared unnatural. Because that instance, Linnaeus"s class Monoecia,Order Monadelphia had plants with separate male and female "flowers" ~ above thesame tree (Monoecia) and also with multiple male organs joined onto onecommon base (Monadelphia). This order included conifers such as pines, firs, and cypresses (the distinction between true flowers and also conifer cones was no clear), but likewise included a few true flower plants, such together the castor bean. "Plants"without noticeable sex organs to be classified in the course Cryptogamia, or "plants with a covert marriage," which lumped with each other the algae, lichens, fungi, mosses and also other bryophytes, and also ferns. Linnaeus openly admitted that this produced an "artificialclassification," not a natural one, which would take into account every thesimilarities and differences in between organisms. Yet like numerous naturalists ofthe time, in details Erasmus Darwin,Linnaeus attached great significance to plant sexual reproduction, i beg your pardon hadonly newly been rediscovered. Linnaeus drew some quite astonishingparallels between plant sexuality and also human love: he wrote in 1729 howThe flowers" leaves. . . Serve as bridal bed which the Creator has actually sogloriously arranged, adorned with such noble bed curtains, and perfumed v so plenty of soft scents that the bridegroom v his bride might therecelebrate your nuptials with so lot the better solemnity. . . The sexual basis of Linnaeus"s plant group was controversial in its day;although basic to learn and use, it plainly did no give great results in many cases.Some critics also attacked it for its sexually clear nature: one opponent, botanistJohann Siegesbeck, called it "loathsome harlotry". (Linnaeus had his revenge,however; he named a small, useless european weed Siegesbeckia.) later systems of classification largely followJohn Ray"s practiceof using morphological evidence from all components of the biology in allstages of its development. What has actually survived that the Linnean mechanism is itsmethod of ordered classification and also custom of binomial nomenclature.For Linnaeus, varieties of organisms to be realentities, which might be group into higher categories called genera
(singular, genus). Through itself, this to be nothing new; because Aristotle,biologists had actually used words genus for a group of comparable organisms, and thensought to define the differentio specifica -- the particular differenceof each form of organism. But opinion differed on just how genera should begrouped. Naturalists that the day often used arbitrarily criteria to team organisms, placingall domestic pets or every water pets together. Component of Linnaeus"innovation to be the group of genera into higher taxa the were also based onshared similarities. In Linnaeus"s original system, genera were grouped intoorders, orders into classes, and also classes right into kingdoms. For this reason the kingdomAnimalia consisted of the course Vertebrata, which contained the stimulate Primates,which consisted of the genus Homo v the types sapiens --humanity. Later on biologists included additional ranks in between these come expressadditional level of similarity.Before Linnaeus, types naming techniques varied. Manybiologists provided the types they described long, unwieldy Latin names,which could be transformed at will; a scientist comparing 2 descriptions ofspecies could not be able to tell i beg your pardon organisms to be being referred to.For instance, the common wild briar rose was referred to by differentbotanists as Rosa sylvestris inodora seu canina and asRosa sylvestris alba cum rubore, folio glabro.The need for a workable naming mechanism was made also greater through the hugenumber that plants and also animals that were being brought back to Europe fromAsia, Africa, and also the Americas. After trying out with various alternatives,Linnaeus streamlined naming extremely by designating one Latin surname to indicatethe genus, and also one together a "shorthand" surname for the species. The 2 names assembly the binomial ("two names") species name. Forinstance, in his two-volume work species Plantarum (The types ofPlants), Linnaeus renamed the briar climbed Rosa canina.This binomial system rapidly came to be the standard system for specify name species.Zoological and most botanical taxonomic priority start with Linnaeus: theoldest tree names embraced as valid today are those released in SpeciesPlantarum, in 1753, while the oldest animal names room those in the tenthedition of Systema Naturae (1758), the very first edition come usethe binomial mechanism consistently throughout. Back Linnaeus was no the very first to usage binomials, he to be the first to use them consistently, and also for this reason, Latin names the naturalists used before Linnaeus are not usually taken into consideration valid under the rules of nomenclature.In his beforehand years, Linnaeus thought that the varieties was not only real,but unchangeable -- together he wrote, Unitas in omni specie ordinem ducit(The invariability of varieties is the condition for bespeak ). ButLinnaeus observed exactly how different species of plant might hybridize, to createforms i beg your pardon looked like brand-new species. He exit the principle that specieswere fixed and also invariable, and also suggested that some -- perhaps most --species in a genus can have arisen after the creation of the world, through hybridization. In his make the efforts to prosper foreign plants in Sweden, Linnaeus also theorized that plant species might be changed through the processof acclimitization. In the direction of the finish of his life, Linnaeus investigatedwhat he thought were situations of crosses between genera, and suggested that,perhaps, new genera might also arise with hybridization.Was Linnaeus an evolutionist? the is true the he abandoned his earlierbelief in the fixity of species, and it is true that hybridization has producednew species of plants, and in some situations of animals. Yet to Linnaeus,the procedure of generating brand-new species was not open-ended and unlimited.Whatever new species could have emerged from the primae speciei, the original varieties in the Garden the Eden, were still part ofGod"s setup for creation, because that they had constantly potentially been present.Linnaeus i found it the battle for survival -- that once called Nature a"butcher"s block" and also a "war of all against all". However, he considered struggle and competition vital to preserve the balanceof nature, part of the divine Order. The ide of open-ended evolution, notnecessarily administrate by a divine Plan and with no predetermined goal, neveroccurred to Linnaeus; the idea would have shocked him. Nevertheless, Linnaeus"s ordered classification and binomial nomenclature,much modified, have remained conventional for end 200 years. Hiswritings have been learned by every generation that naturalists, includingErasmus Darwinand Charles Darwin. The find for a "natural system" the classificationis quiet going top top -- except that what systematists try to discover and also useas the communication of group is now the evolutionary relationships of taxa.The Linné Herbarium, in ~ theSwedish Museum of herbal History,preserves several of Linnaeus"s original plant specimens. The Museum likewise hasan excellent, in-depth biography ofLinnaeus. Friend can also view Linnaeus"sbotanical garden and Linnaeus"s manor homeand garden in ~ Hamarby, courtesy that UppsalaUniversity, Linnaeus"s alma mater. Uppsala University likewise maintainsLinné top top Line, a affluent sourceof details on Linnaeus and also his times (for those who can read Swedish). Established a couple of years after ~ Linnaeus"s death, the Linnaean culture of London is quiet going solid as one international society for the examine of natural history. The culture preserves the bulk of Linnaeus"s enduring collections, manuscripts, and library. The Strandell arsenal of Linneana, at Carnegie-Mellon University, and the Mackenzie Linneana collection at Kansas State University, are significant American collections of writings by and around Linnaeus and also his associates.

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The Linnaeus attach at the british Natural background Museum, aims to make obtainable electronic execution of Linnaeus"s writings and documents.