Search databaseBooksAll DatabasesAssemblyBiocollectionsBioProjectBioSampleBioSystemsBooksClinVarConserved DomainsdbGaPdbVarGeneGenomeGEO DataSetsGEO ProfilesGTRHomoloGeneIdentical Protein GroupsMedGenMeSHsdrta.net web Sitesdrta.net CatalogNucleotideOMIMPMCPopSetProteinProtein ClustersProtein family ModelsPubChem BioAssayPubChem CompoundPubChem SubstancePubMedSNPSRAStructureTaxonomyToolKitToolKitAllToolKitBookgh

sdrta.net Bookshelf. A business of the national Library of Medicine, nationwide Institutes the Health.

You are watching: Which two bones form the hard palate

StatPearls . Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021 Jan-.


*

Introduction

Proper palate development in the arising fetus is essential for functional phonation and also feeding ~ birth. The palate creates the roof that the mouth and separates the dental cavity indigenous the sleep cavity. The palate undergoes facility morphological transforms during embryogenesis to attain its final kind and divides right into an anterior immobile hard bony segment and a posterior mobile soft palate that does no contain bone. The superior aspect of the palate develops the floor that the nasal cavities and has a lining of ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium (respiratory epithelium). The inferior facet of the palate develops the roof the the dental cavity and is lined with stratified squamous epithelium (oral mucosa) that has secretory salivary glands. The difficult palate comprises about two-thirds that the complete palate surface area, and its basic bony structure consists of the palatine processes of the maxilla and also the horizontal key of the palatine bones. The soft palate is consisted of of muscle fibers covered by a rubber membrane, specifically five muscles which have a functional function in breathing and also swallowing: 


Levator veli palatini muscle: elevates the soft palate and also is affiliated in swallowing.
Musculus uvulae muscle: functions to shorten the uvula.
Palatoglossus muscle: traction the soft palate in the direction of the tongue and is involved in swallowing.

Structure and also Function

Hard Palate

The tough palate comprises the anterior two-thirds of the palate and is an immobile tough bony segment whose underlying bony structure is composed of the palatine processes of the maxilla and the horizontal plates of the palatine bones. Located anteriorly, the palatine procedures of the maxilla make up most of the difficult palate and cover the area in between the two sides of the maxillary dental arch. The palatine procedures of the maxilla meet the two horizontal key of the palatine bones posteriorly, i m sorry fuse down the midline. The tough palate officially separates the dental cavity native the nasal cavities, forming the floor of the nasal cavity and also the roof the the oral cavity. The tough palate is extended superiorly through ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium (respiratory mucosa) and also inferiorly by stratified squamous epithelium (oral mucosa). Anteriorly, the difficult palate has actually irregular ridges or rugae, referred to as rugae palatinae, ~ above the mucous membrane that facilitates the i of food posteriorly in the direction of the pharynx. The hard palate has three foramina/canals that serve as passageways for an important neurovascular structures that supply the dental cavity. These essential landmarks include the incisive canal, the better palatine foramen, and also the lesser palatine foramen. The incisive canal is located at the anterior midline the the maxilla, straight posterior to the central maxillary incisor teeth, and also contains the nasopalatine nerve and also the diminish palatine artery. The higher palatine foramen is situated in the posterior hard palate medial come the 3rd molar tooth and also is traversed through the better palatine vessels and nerve. The lesser palatine foramen is located posterior to the higher palatine foramen on the base of the pyramidal procedure and is traversed by the lesser palatine nerve. Structurally, the hard palate provides a rigid floor to the nasal cavity that stays clear of changes in press within the mouth indigenous closing off nasal passages. Historically, babies with a cleft palate might not suckle and also often passed away from malnutrition; this is due to the fact that infants cannot properly create negative sucking pressure without a properly developed hard palate. The difficult palate is likewise essential for phonation and contains rugae that aid in mastication and also digestion.<1><2>

Soft Palate

The soft palate renders up the posterior third of the palate and also is a posterior continuation of the difficult palate. The soft palate is composed of muscle fibers and also connective tissue extended by a mucus membrane consist of of a stratified squamous epithelium v secretory salient glands. Unlike the difficult palate, the soft palate is an extremely flexible and also does not contain any type of bony structures. The soft palate serves to elevate the nasopharynx, properly closing the communication from the oropharynx come the nasopharynx. The soft palate is comprised of 5 muscles that play crucial roles in breathing, phonation, and swallowing.

Anteriorly, the soft palate is consistent with the tough palate and the palatine aponeurosis. Posteriorly, the soft palate ends as a midline projection referred to as the uvula that projects right into the dental cavity. The soft palate creates the roof of the oropharyngeal isthmus, an area connecting the pharynx and also oral cavity. Two arcs bind the soft palate to the tongue and pharynx, the palatoglossal arches, and also palatopharyngeal arches, respectively. The palatine tonsils appear between these arches in the tonsillar fossa of the oropharynx.

The soft palate has five muscles that room innervated by the pharyngeal plexus of CN X, other than for the tensor veli palatini muscle, which receives innervation indigenous a branch the the trigeminal nerve referred to as the medial pterygoid nerve. The muscles that make up the soft palate incorporate the palatoglossus, palatopharyngeus, tensor veli palatini, musculus uvulae, and also levator veli palatini muscles. The tensor veli palatini muscle attaches to the palatine aponeurosis native its origin at the medial pterygoid key of the sphenoid. The tensor veli palatini muscle functions to it is too dirty the soft palate during swallowing, staying clear of the entry of food right into the nasopharynx. The levator veli palatini muscle increase from the eustachian tube and the petrous temporal bone prior to attaching to the palatine aponeurosis, this muscle attributes to elevate the soft palate during swallowing to prevent the entry of food into the nasopharynx. The palatoglossus muscle arises from the palatine aponeurosis and travels inferiorly, anteriorly, and laterally to attach into the side of the tongue—the palatoglossus muscle functions to traction the soft palate towards the tongue and initiates the plot of swallowing. The palatopharyngeus muscle emerges from the hard palate and also the palatine aponeurosis and also attaches come the premium border the the thyroid cartilage. The palatopharyngeus muscle time form the soft palate and also draws the pharynx superiorly and also anteriorly during the action of swallowing. The palatopharyngeus muscle close the door the laryngeal airway during swallowing to stop the aspiration of food. The musculus uvulae muscle derives native the palatine aponeurosis and also the posterior nasal spine and also attaches to the mucous membrane the the uvula. The musculus uvulae muscle attributes to shorten the uvula. Ipsilateral contraction of the musculus uvulae muscle draws increase the uvula ~ above the exact same side.

During the plot of swallowing, the levator veli palatini muscle elevates the soft palate, approximating it with the posterior pharyngeal wall surface and fully blocking off the airway and also nasal passages. Together a result, the soft palate creates a vacuum in the oral cavity, maintaining food native entering the respiratory tract tract. Breathing end briefly throughout swallowing; this is since of the physics closure the the airway by elevation of the soft palate. During a sneeze, the soft palate protects the nasal passage by diverting part secretions to the dental cavity. The soft palate dram a function in the gag reflex, touching the finish of the soft palate or uvula evokes the gag reflex in the bulk of people.<3><4><5>


Embryology

Early in embryonic development, the nasal cavity runs repetitively with the oral cavity, together there is no anatomic framework separating these two cavities. Together embryonic development progresses, palate development ensues, officially separating the oral and also nasal cavities from one another. Appropriate palate development requires the development of a major palate in the sixth week of development, as well as the development of a an additional palate in between the sixth and also eighth weeks of development. The primary palate has the alveolar arch. The second palate consists of the hard and also soft palate. The external human confront develops in between the fourth and sixth weeks of embryonic development. The main palate develops around the same time as the exterior face, particularly the 6th week of development, together a an outcome of the blend of the medial nasal and also maxillary processes. Subsequently, in between the sixth and twelfth weeks of embryonic development, the second palate develops as the an outcome of the combination between palatal processes farming from the medial wall surfaces of the maxillary processes. During an additional palate formation, the palatal shelves extend medially and also fuse remarkable to the tongue. As the palatal shelves increase medially, the emerging mandible proceeds to grow, permitting for the tongue to obtain out of the way of the farming palatal shelves. Through the nine week that development, the palatal shelves fuse and also with the primary palate anteriorly to type the definitive palate.<6><7><8>


Blood Supply and Lymphatics

The greater palatine arteries run anteriorly, indigenous the higher palatine foramen to supply the palate. The higher palatine arteries offer as the primary arterial supply to the palate. Anastomosis between the ascending palatine artery and also the lesser palatine artery offers collateral it is provided to the palate. The better palatine and also lesser palatine arteries are branches the the maxillary artery, which arises from the external carotid artery. The ascending palatine artery is a branch the the facial artery, which also arises native the outside carotid artery. The palate’s venous drainage directs towards the pterygoid venous plexus. The lymph ship of the soft palate drain into the sub-digastric and/or lateral pharyngeal nodes.<9><10><11>


Nerves

Excluding the tensor veli palatini muscle, every one of the palatal muscles space innervated by fibers from the pharyngeal plexus derived from the vagus nerve. The tensor veli palatini muscle receives its innervation from the medial pterygoid nerve, a branch the the trigeminal nerve. The sensory innervation of the palate originates native the maxillary branch that the trigeminal nerve. The maxillary department of the trigeminal nerve offers rise to many sensory branches that innervate the middle part of the face, consisting of the nasopalatine, better palatine, lesser palatine, exceptional alveolar, center meningeal, infraorbital, zygomatic, worse palpebral, superior labial, and pharyngeal nerves. The higher palatine nerve arises from that canal with the greater palatine foramen and courses anteriorly in the roof of the palate, innervating the gingivae and also mucosa of the difficult palate while connecting with the nasopalatine nerve anteriorly. The lesser palatine nerve operation alongside, the greater palatine nerve, arising from the lesser palatine foramen to administer sensory innervation come the tonsils, uvula, and also soft palate.<12>


Muscles

The soft palate has 5 muscles that obtain innervation by the pharyngeal plexus of the vagus nerve, except for the tensor veli palatini muscle, i beg your pardon is innervated by a branch the the trigeminal nerve referred to as the medial pterygoid nerve. The muscle that consist of the soft palate encompass the palatoglossus, palatopharyngeus, tensor veli palatini, musculus uvulae, and levator veli palatini muscles.

The tensor veli palatini muscle attaches to the palatine aponeurosis from its origin at the medial pterygoid key of the sphenoid. The tensor veli palatini muscle features to it is too dirty the soft palate throughout swallowing, staying clear of the entrance of food right into the nasopharynx.

The levator veli palatini muscle emerges from the eustachian tube and also the petrous temporal bone prior to attaching to the palatine aponeurosis, this muscle attributes to elevate the soft palate during swallowing to prevent the entry of food right into the nasopharynx.

The palatoglossus muscle arises from the palatine aponeurosis. It travels inferiorly, anteriorly, and also laterally to connect into the next of the tongue—the palatoglossus muscle features to traction the soft palate in the direction of the tongue and also initiates the act of swallowing.

The palatopharyngeus muscle emerges from the hard palate and also the palatine aponeurosis and also attaches to the remarkable border that the thyroid cartilage. The palatopharyngeus muscle tense the soft palate and also draws the pharynx superiorly and anteriorly throughout the act of swallowing.

The palatopharyngeus muscle close the door the laryngeal airway during swallowing to stop the aspiration that food.

The musculus uvulae muscle derives native the palatine aponeurosis and also the posterior nasal spine and attaches come the mucous membrane of the uvula. The musculus uvulae muscle features to shorten the uvula. Ipsilateral convulsion of the musculus uvulae muscle draws increase the uvula on the same side.


Physiologic Variants

Studies have demonstrated that the structural and also obstructive fads of the pharynx and palate vary amongst the basic population. It is important to identify these phenotypic variations and also understand how they generate the shape and also collapsibility that the retropalatal airway. Knowledge phenotypic sports in palatal anatomy room imperative in the diagnosis and treatment of sleep apnea.

The soft palate has both distal and also proximal segments separated through a structure referred to as the palatal genu. The palatal genu almost right the border between the aponeurotic and also muscular contents of the soft palate. The size of both the distal and also proximal soft palate may vary amongst individuals, perhaps predisposing details individuals to sleep apnea. A distal palatal segment length higher than fifteen millimeters has actually been displayed to boost the threat of sleep apnea dramatically and correlates with poorer palatopharyngoplasty outcomes.

The construction of the soft palate and also the position of the palatal genu is strongly associated to the size of the levator veli palatini muscle. The levator veli palatini muscle comprises forty percent of the soft palate length between the tough palate and the basic of the uvula. The proximal soft palatal segment maintains a variable angle from the tough palate, termed the alpha angle, i m sorry is figured out by the length and position the the levator veli palatini muscle.

Studies have explained three palatal airway phenotypes based upon the measurement of the alpha angle; oblique, intermediate, and also vertical. In people with intermediate and oblique palatal phenotypes, the angle between the proximal soft palate and also hard palate is much less acutely downwards, allowing for the soft palate to keep a position more parallel come the tough palate. The prayer of patients with oblique and intermediate phenotypes frequently collapse circularly. In people who display screen a upright palatal phenotype, the angle between the proximal soft palate and hard palate is more acutely downward, allowing for the soft palate to preserve a position much more parallel to the posterior pharyngeal wall, fairly than the difficult palate. Airway collapse wake up in one anterior-posterior fashion in this patients.<13>


Surgical Considerations

Surgical techniques including the palate are quickly evolving to boost the high quality of life for patients further. Palate surgery is typically indicated because that patients with significant obstructive sleep apnea, slot palate repair, and cancer resection.

Cleft palate repair, termed palatoplasty, need to be performed between six to twelve months of period to optimize feeding and speech development without interrupting regular maxillofacial growth. There room three species of palatoplasty techniques: one form is because that soft palate repair, the second kind is for hard palate repair, and the 3rd involves the operation schedule. Soft palate repair methods are radical muscle dissection, intravelar veloplasty, main pharyngeal flap, and double opposing Z-plasty techniques. The tough palate repair techniques consist the the von Langenbeck, Veau-Wardill-Kilner V-Y, vomer flap, and alveolar expansion palatoplasty techniques. The surgical schedule/protocol based approaches are totality in one, Malek’s, and modified schedule through palatoplasty prior to lip repair. The score of surgery is to reapproximate or realign the palatal muscles. Upon completion of the surgery, this can assist expedite the advancement of normal speech and sound. Further, slot palate repair v repositioning of muscles can also improve the to work of the eustachian tube and also hearing. As soon as a operated doctor repositions the palatal muscles correctly, this maneuver have the right to improve middle ear ventilation and also decrease episodes of otitis media and also hearing defects.

The most usual surgical procedure provided to act obstructive sleep apnea is called uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP) and involves the repositioning and/or removal of tissue at the soft palate, uvula, and throat wall surfaces to rise airway size and also decrease organization collapse.

Soft palate implants, or the pillar procedure, is a minimally invasive procedure that has demonstrated to assist with mild to moderate cases of sleep apnea. The pillar procedure requires the location of three rods made of polyester right into the soft palate. This polyester rods incite an inflammation reaction within the surrounding soft tissue, which outcomes in a stiffening the the soft palate. This inflammation reaction outcomes in a stiffer soft palate that is much less apt come make call with the posterior pharyngeal wall as the muscles relax during the deep stages of sleep.

Surgical resection is the therapy for cancer of the difficult palate. Extension into surrounding bone is common, and frequently warrants removed of adjacent bone. If the tumor is small, the excision might be closed after surgery. If the tumor is large, a prosthetic maker can offer to cover the opened in the palate together the excised area cannot be closed.<1><3><13><14>


Clinical Significance

Tumors that the palate, both benign and also malignant, most often present asymptomatically or are connected with a low level that discomfort.  The appearance of benign and malignant lesions that the palate is likewise quite similar, making the of utmost prestige that the clinician be able to differentiate between them. Malignant squamous epithelial neoplasms such as verrucous carcinoma, carcinoma that the maxillary sinus, and also squamous cell carcinoma may show up in the hard palate. Carcinoma that the maxillary sinus is often asymptomatic for a lengthy time and usually presents at an advanced stage. This tumor is linked with the elderly and is most generally diagnosed once the tumor expands to fill the sinus and produces a bulge the the alveolar ridge or palatal area on physics examination. Squamous cell carcinomas constitute more than ninety percent of all oral cancers. Non-squamous cabinet carcinomas the the oral cavity are rare. Risk determinants for squamous cabinet carcinoma of the palate incorporate alcohol, tobacco, and also HPV infection. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the soft palate is painful, reasons dysphagia, and portends a lot worse prognosis than tumors located much more anteriorly. Verrucous carcinoma is a type of squamous cabinet carcinoma that seldom metastasizes, behaves indolently, and demonstrates a white papillary clinical appearance. The most typical locations because that verrucous carcinoma room the alveolar ridge and hard palate, and it is linked with elderly patients who wear complete denture prosthesis. Tumors that the palate can follow the palatine nerves with the greater and also lesser palatine foramen and extend into surrounding bone, nerves, and also soft tissue. As much as seventy percent of squamous cell carcinomas the the hard palate extends past the hard palate right into neighboring structures. Radiographically, malignant tumors of the palate may display evidence of bone destruction and sometimes expose a radioopacity developed by the neoplastic mass.<15>

Minor salivary gland carcinomas represent much less than 5 percent of dental cavity cancers, and around sixty percent of castle arise ~ above the tough palate. Both malignant and also benign outstanding gland tumors the the palate appear as well-circumscribed, smooth, dome-shaped, non-moveable swellings that show a slow growth pattern.<16>

Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common benign outstanding gland neoplasm discovered within the palate. The most generally discovered malignant outstanding gland tumors of the palate in descending order room adenoid cystic carcinoma, polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma, and also mucoepidermoid carcinoma.<17><18>

Melanoma is a malignant tumor the melanocytes many often linked with cancer of the skin. Melanoma may construct anywhere melanocytes exist and have the potential to kind from melanocytes situated within the palate. Oral melanoma is incredibly rare, accounting for much less than one percent of all oral malignancies. The most usual site for dental melanoma is the tough palate, which account for about forty percent that cases. Dental melanoma most commonly shows up on the maxillary alveolus or difficult palate and also tends to have actually a much worse prognosis 보다 cutaneous melanoma. Initially, melanoma lesions appear flat and also later become fixed and also nodular in appearance. Melanomas often appear as light/dark brown lesions.<15>

The most typical locations that extranodal lymphoma in the head and also neck are the soft palate and also posterior tough palate. On examination, lymphomas typically appear as a non-ulcerated, non-tender diffusive mass.

Sarcomas are malignant tumors that non-epithelial-tissue beginning that may arise almost everywhere in the human being body, consisting of the palate. Sarcoma that the palate shows up as ulcerated masses in the middle-aged or young patient.<15> 

Cleft palate and lip are the most common congenital orofacial deformities in the world. Slot palate represents the third most frequently occurring congenital deformity after clubfoot and cleft lip. Cleft lip and palate demonstrate a multifactorial inheritance pattern. They are the an outcome of a mix of genetic predispositions and in-utero exposure to teratogens favor nicotine, alcohol, antiepileptics, and also folate antagonists. Slit palate outcomes in major facial deformities, feeding difficulties, sleep regurgitation the milk, coughing/choking throughout feeds, obstacles with phonation, dentition defects, and also predisposes patient to recurrent episodes of otitis media v effusion. Slot palate wake up in a variety of chromosomal abnormalities choose the Pierre-Robin sequence, Patau syndrome (trisomy 13), and Edward syndrome (trisomy 18). Embryologically, a cleft palate occurs due to a partial or complete failure of combination of the palatine prominences by the 9th week of development. Slot palate might be unilateral or bilateral and complete or incomplete. There are three types of slot palate: submucosal slot palate, incomplete slot palate, and a complete cleft palate. In the submucosal slit palate, the palatine mucosa remains intact, but an basic bony palatal or muscular defect is present. Incomplete cleft palate describes clefting of the secondary palate exclusively, while complete cleft palate describes clefting that the entire soft palate, tough palate, and also uvula. Slit palate repair, termed palatoplasty, need to be performed in between six come twelve months of period to optimize feeding and also speech advancement without interrupting common maxillofacial growth.

See more: Can I Move Out At 17 In Michigan ? Can I Legally Move Out At 17 In Michigan

<14><19>

Repeated bouts of upper airway obstruction reason obstructive sleep apnea during the deep step of sleep as a result of the narrowing/collapse that the respiratory tract passages. Patients with obstructive sleep apnea have tendency to be overweight with associated peripharyngeal fat infiltration and/or enhanced size of the tongue and soft palate. This anatomic abnormalities predispose patients to obstructive sleep apnea because they diminish the cross-sectional area of the top airway. An raised neck circumference coincides to increased peripharyngeal fat infiltration, particularly lining the airway and also at the basic of the tongue. Neck circumference should be measured as soon as obstructive sleep apnea is suspected. A neck circumference higher than seventeen customs in men and greater than sixteen inches in women increases the hazard for obstructive sleep apnea. One local airway aspect thought to be a causative certified dealer of obstructive sleep apnea is one elongated soft palate. A distal palatal segment length greater than fifteen millimeters has displayed to rise the risk of sleep apnea dramatically. Initial therapy of sleep apnea is generally nonsurgical and consists of positive airway push therapy, most commonly in the type of CPAP. Historically, countless of the surgical methods used to exactly sleep apnea in adults were sub-optimal, and also palatopharyngoplasty methods have evolved from primarily excisional methods to those that reposition and reconstruct the palate. Examples of these an ext advanced operation techniques incorporate the development sphincter-pharyngoplasty, lateral pharyngoplasty, relocation pharyngoplasty, and also uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP).<1><5>