Maslow’s Humanistic concept of Personality

Maslow’s humanistic concept of personality says that people attain their complete potential by relocating from an easy needs to self-actualization.

You are watching: Which perspective focuses on free will and self-actualization

Key Takeaways

Key PointsAs a leader of mankind psychology, Abraham Maslow approached the study of personality by focusing on subjective experiences, cost-free will, and the inherent drive towards self-actualization .Maslow broadened the ar of mankind psychology to include an explanation of just how human needs readjust throughout one individual’s lifespan, and how these needs affect the advancement of personality.Maslow’s power structure of demands ranks human being needs indigenous the most an easy physical needs to the most advanced needs of self-actualization. A person must acquire and master every level the need prior to proceeding to the next need.Maslow learned the personalities of self-actualizers and found lock had plenty of things in common; he believed self-actualizers indicate a coherent personality syndrome and stand for optimal emotional health and also functioning.Maslow’s concepts have to be criticized because that their lack of clinical rigor, and their Western social bias.Key Termstranscendence: remarkable excellence; supereminence.humanistic psychology: A psychological perspective which increased to importance in the mid-20th century in an answer to psychoanalytic theory and behaviorism; this technique emphasizes one individual’s innate drive towards self-actualization and creativity.self-actualization: follow to mankind theory, the establish of one’s complete potential; deserve to include creative expression, pursuit for spiritual enlightenment, search of knowledge, or the desire to provide to society.

Often called the “third force” in psychology, humanism to be a reaction come both the downhearted determinism of psychoanalysis, v its focus on emotional disturbance, and to the behaviorists’ watch of people passively reaction to the environment. 2 of the leading humanistic philosophers who made developments in the ar of personality psychology to be Abraham Maslow and also Carl Rogers.

Abraham Maslow’s Humanism

As a leader of humanistic psychology, Abraham Maslow approached the study of personality psychology by focusing on subjective experiences and complimentary will. He was mainly involved with an individual’s natural drive towards self-actualization—a state the fulfillment in i m sorry a human is achieving in ~ his or her highest level the capability. Maslow positioned his occupational as a vital complement to the of Freud, saying: “It is together if Freud gave us the sick fifty percent of psychology and we should now fill it out with the healthy and balanced half.”

In his research, Maslow studied the characters of civilization who he thought about to it is in healthy, creative, and also productive, consisting of Albert Einstein, Eleanor Roosevelt, cutting board Jefferson, Abraham Lincoln, and others. He uncovered that such civilization share comparable characteristics, such together being open, creative, loving, spontaneous, compassionate, came to for others, and accepting that themselves.

Personality and the power structure of Needs

Maslow is maybe most well-known for his power structure of needs theory, in which he proposes that human beings have certain needs in common and also that this needs have to be met in a specific order. These needs range from the most basic physiological demands for survival to higher-level self-actualization and also transcendence needs. Maslow’s power structure is most frequently presented visually together a pyramid, with the largest, most fundamental physiological requirements at the bottom and also the smallest, most progressed self-actualization demands at the top. Each layer that the pyramid should be fulfilled prior to moving up the pyramid to higher needs, and this procedure is continued throughout the lifespan.


Maslow’s power structure of needs: Abraham Maslow arisen a human pecking order of demands that is conceptualized as a pyramid to represent how people move from one level of demands to another. An initial physiological needs must be met prior to safety needs, climate the need for love and belonging, climate esteem, and also finally self-actualization.

Maslow believed that successful fulfillment of every layer of demands was critical in the breakthrough of personality. The highest possible need because that self-actualization represents the achievement of ours fullest potential, and those individuals who finally achieved self-actualization were stated to stand for optimal psychological health and also functioning. Maslow extended the field of mental study to incorporate fully-functional individuals instead of only those with psychoses, and also he shed a much more positive irradiate on personality psychology.

Characteristics the Self-Actualizers

Maslow viewed self-actualizers together the supreme achievers in the human race. He learned stand-out individuals in stimulate to far better understand what features they possessed that enabled them to attain self-actualization. In his research, he found that numerous of these civilization shared details personality traits.

Most self-actualizers had a great sense of awareness, keeping a near-constant enjoyment and awe of life. They often described peak experiences during which castle felt such an intense level of satisfaction the they seemed to transcend themselves. They proactively engaged in tasks that would certainly bring around this feeling of unity and meaningfulness. Despite this fact, many of these individuals seemed deep rooted in reality and were active problem-seekers and also solvers. They emerged a level of acceptance for what might not be adjusted and a level the spontaneity and resilience to handle what could be changed. Most of these human being had healthy and balanced relationships through a small group with which they connected frequently. Follow to Maslow, self-actualized world indicate a coherent personality syndrome and stand for optimal psychological health and also functioning.

Criticism that Maslow’s Theories

Maslow’s concepts have been criticized for their absence of scientific rigor. As with all beforehand psychological studies, questions have been raised around the absence of empirical proof used in his research. Because of the subjective nature the the study, the holistic approach allows for a great deal that variation but does not determine enough constant variables in order to it is in researched v true accuracy. Psychologists additionally worry that such an extreme focus top top the subjective suffer of the separation, personal, instance does small to define or appreciate the affect of society on personality development. Furthermore, the power structure of needs has actually been accused of social bias—mainly mirroring Western values and ideologies. Doubters argue that this concept is considered relative to each society and society and can not be universally applied.

Rogers’ Humanistic concept of Personality

Carl Rogers’ mankind personality concept emphasizes the prestige of the self-actualizing propensity in creating a self-concept.

Key Takeaways

Key PointsCarl Rogers to be an prominent humanistic psychologist who emerged a personality theory that emphasized the importance of the self-actualizing propensity in shaping human personalities.Rogers thought that human beings are constantly reaction to stimuli with their subjective truth ( phenomenal field ), which changes continuously. Over time, a person develops a self- concept based upon the feedback native this field of reality.In the advance of self-concept, positive regard is key. Unconditional positive regard is an environment that is totally free of preconceived notions of value. Conditional positive regard is complete of conditions of precious that need to be achieved to be considered successful.Human us develop suitable self and a genuine self based upon the conditional status of optimistic regard. How carefully one’s genuine self matches up through their appropriate self is called congruity.Rogers believed that totally functioning human being could attain “the good life,” in which they constantly target to satisfy their potential and enable their personalities to emanate from your experiences.Like Maslow’s theories, Rogers’ were criticized for their absence of empirical proof in research.Key Termsholistic: Relating to the totality instead of a separation right into parts.humanistic psychology: A mental perspective which increased to importance in the mid-20th century in solution to psychoanalytic theory and also behaviorism; this method emphasizes an individual’s inherent drive in the direction of self-actualization and also creativity.congruity: An circumstances or point of covenant or correspondence between the ideal self and also the genuine self in Rogers’ mankind personality theory.phenomenal field: Our subjective reality, every that we are conscious of, consisting of objects and also people and also our behaviors, thoughts, images, and also ideas.

Carl Rogers: Carl Rogers to be a significant humanistic psychologist who is known for his concept of personality the emphasizes change, growth, and also the potential for person good.

Carl Rogers was a prominent psychologist and also one the the founding members that the humanist movement. In addition to Abraham Maslow, he focused on the development potential of healthy and balanced individuals and also greatly added to our expertise of the self and personality. Both Rogers’ and Maslow’s theories emphasis on individual choices and do not host that biological is deterministic. They emphasized free will and also self-determination, through each individual desiring to come to be the best person they can become.

Humanistic psychology emphasized the active role of the individual in shaping your internal and also external worlds. Rogers progressed the ar by stressing the the human being person is an active, creative, enduring being who lives in the present and subjectively responds to present perceptions, relationships, and also encounters. He coined the hatchet actualizing tendency, which refers to a person’s simple instinct come succeed in ~ his or her highest feasible capacity. Through person-centered counseling and also scientific treatment research, Rogers formed his theory of personality development, i beg your pardon highlighted complimentary will and the an excellent reservoir of person potential because that goodness.

Personality development and the Self-Concept

Rogers based his theory of personality breakthrough on humanistic psychology and theories of spatu experience. He thought that anyone exists in a constantly changing world of experiences the they space at the facility of. A human being reacts to transforms in their phenomenal field, which includes external objects and also people as well as internal thoughts and also emotions.

The phenomenal field: The phenomenal ar refers come a person’s subjective reality, which includes external objects and people and also internal thoughts and emotions. The person’s motivations and also environments both act on your phenomenal field.

Rogers believed that all behavior is urged by self-actualizing tendencies, which drive a person to attain at their greatest level. As a an outcome of your interactions with the environment and others, an individual develops a framework of the self or self-concept—an organized, fluid, conceptual pattern of concepts and also values pertained to the self. If a person has a hopeful self-concept, they have tendency to feel good about that they are and also often view the people as a safe and also positive place. If they have actually a an unfavorable self-concept, they might feel unhappy with who lock are.

Ideal me vs. Actual Self

Rogers further separated the self into two categories: the best self and the actual self. The ideal self is the human being that you would choose to be; the real me is the human you actually are. Rogers concentrated on the idea the we need to achieve consistency between these 2 selves. We endure congruence when ours thoughts around our actual self and ideal me are really similar—in other words, when our self-concept is accurate. High congruence leads to a better sense of self-worth and a healthy, productive life. Conversely, as soon as there is a great discrepancy between our ideal and also actual selves, we endure a state Rogers referred to as incongruence, which can lead to maladjustment.

Unconditional confident Regard

In the development of the self-concept, Rogers elevated the prestige of unconditional positive regard, or unconditional love. World raised in an setting of unconditional positive regard, in i m sorry no preconceived problems of worth space present, have the chance to totally actualize. When human being are raised in an setting of conditional hopeful regard, in i m sorry worth and love room only given under certain conditions, lock must complement or achieve those problems in stimulate to get the love or positive regard they yearn for. Their best self is thereby established by others based upon these conditions, and they are required to develop outside of their very own true actualizing tendency; this contributes to incongruence and a higher gap between the genuine self and the right self.

“The an excellent Life”

Rogers described life in state of values rather than stages that development. These principles exist in liquid processes quite than static states. He asserted that a totally functioning person would continually target to satisfy his or she potential in every of this processes, afford what he referred to as “the an excellent life.” These human being would enable personality and self-concept to emanate native experience. He discovered that completely functioning individuals had actually several traits or tendencies in common:

A farming openness come experience–they relocate away native defensiveness.An progressively existential lifestyle–living each moment fully, fairly than distortion the moment to right personality or self-concept.Increasing organismic trust–they to trust their very own judgment and also their capability to choose actions that is suitable for every moment.Freedom the choice–they space not limited by incongruence and are able to make a wide selection of choices an ext fluently. They think that castle play a role in determining their own behavior and so feel responsible for their very own behavior.Higher levels of creativity–they will certainly be more an imaginative in the method they adapt to their own circumstances without emotion a must conform.Reliability and constructiveness–they can be trusted to act constructively. Even aggressive demands will it is in matched and also balanced through intrinsic goodness in congruent individuals.A rich full life–they will experience joy and pain, love and heartbreak, fear and also courage much more intensely.

See more: Craftsman Lawn Mower Spark Plug Gap, Spark Plug Gap For Lawn Mower

Criticisms of Rogers’ Theories

Like Maslow’s theories, Rogers’ were criticized for their absence of empirical evidence used in research. The holistic approach of humanism allows for a an excellent deal the variation however does not recognize enough consistent variables to be researched through true accuracy. Psychologists additionally worry that such severe focus top top the subjective suffer of the separation, personal, instance does little to define or evaluate the affect of society on personality development.