Functional Groups

A functional team is a specific group of atoms within a molecule the is responsible because that a characteristics of the molecule. Many sdrta.netlogically energetic molecules save one or an ext functional groups. In Bis2a we will talk about the significant functional groups discovered in sdrta.netlogical molecules. These include: Hydroxyl, Methyl, Carboxyl, Carbonyl, Amino and also Phosphate.


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Hydroxyl R-OH

A hydroxyl (alcohol group) is one –OH group covalently bonded to a carbon atom. The oxygen atom is much an ext electronegative 보다 either the hydrogen or the carbon, i beg your pardon will reason the electrons in the covalent bonds come spend more time roughly the oxygen than approximately the C or H. Therefore, the O-H and O-C bonds in the hydroxyl team will it is in polar covalent bonds. The figure listed below depict the partial dues δ+ and δ- associated with hydroxyl group.


The hydroxyl functional group shown here consists of an oxygen atom bound come a carbon atom and also a hydrogen atom. These bonds are polar covalent, definition the electron connected in creating the bonds room not common equally between the C-O and also O-H bonds. Attribution: produced Marc T. Facciotti (Own work)


The hydroxyl functional groups can form hydrogen bonds, presented as a dotted line. The hydrogen link will kind between the δ- of the oxygen atom and a δ+ that the hydrogen atom. Dipoles shown in blue arrows. Attribution: Marc T. Facciotti (original work)

Hydroxyl groups are an extremely common in sdrta.netlogical molecules. Hydroxyl groups appear on carbohydrates (A), top top the R-groups of part amino mountain (B), and on main point acids (C). Deserve to you find any kind of hydroxyl teams in the phospholipid in (D)?

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The amine functional team can exist in a deprotonated or protonated state.

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Once protonated the nitrogen atom is tied to three hydrogen atoms and has a optimistic charge. The deprotonated kind of this team is neutral.Attribution: created Erin Easlon (Own work)