Alternate titles: Brønsted–Lowry definition, acids and bases, proton concept of, proton theory of acids and also bases
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Key People:Johannes Nicolaus Brønsted...(Show more)Related Topics:acidionic acidproton donorproton acceptorconjugate acid-base pair...(Show more)

Brønsted-Lowry theory, additionally called proton theory of acids and bases, a theory, introduced independently in 1923 by the Danish chemist johannes Nicolaus Brønsted and the English chemist cutting board Martin Lowry, stating that any type of compound that deserve to transfer a proton to any other compound is an acid, and also the compound the accepts the proton is a base. A proton is a nuclear particle with a unit positive electrical charge; it is stood for by the prize H+ since it constitutes the nucleus of a hydrogen atom.


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Overview of 3 theories the acids and bases: Arrhenius theory, Brønsted-Lowry theory, and also Lewis theory.

according to the Brønsted-Lowry scheme a problem can duty as an acid only in the existence of a base; similarly, a problem can duty as a base just in the existence of one acid. Furthermore, once an acidic substance loses a proton, it forms a base, dubbed the conjugate basic of an acid, and when a basic substance gains a proton, it develops an acid called the conjugate acid of a base. Thus, the reaction between an acidic substance, such as hydrochloric acid, and a an easy substance, such as ammonia, might be represented by the equation:



In bespeak to settle the various difficulties in the hydrogen–hydroxide ion definitions of acids and bases, a new, much more generalized definition...

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In the equation the ammonium ion (NH+4 ) is the mountain conjugate to the base ammonia, and the chloride ion (Cl-) is the basic conjugate come hydrochloric acid.


The Brønsted-Lowry theory enlarges the number of compounds taken into consideration to it is in acids and also bases to encompass not only the neutral molecule (e.g., sulfuric, nitric, and also acetic acids, and the alkali steel hydroxides) however also specific atoms and molecules with optimistic and an unfavorable electrical dues (cations and also anions). The ammonium ion, the hydronium ion, and also some hydrated metal cations are taken into consideration acids. The acetate, phosphate, carbonate, sulfide, and halogen ion are thought about bases.

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