Food Safety focus (31st Issue, February 2009) – Food safety Platform

Nutrient and also Health - Carbohydrates: Sugars

reported by Ms. Jacqueline FUNG, scientific Officer, Risk communication Section,Centre because that Food security

In the critical issue, we focused on facility carbohydrates (i.e. Starch and also dietary fibres). In this issue, we will talk about straightforward carbohydrates (i.e. Sugars).

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Simple carbohydrates (Sugars)

Based top top the chemistry structures, an easy carbohydrates deserve to be divided into 2 categories, namely monosaccharides (single street molecule) and also disaccharides (two solitary sugar molecules joined together). Glucose, fructose and also galactose are the 3 monosaccharides important in nutrition. These single sugar molecule contain 6 carbon atoms, 12 hydrogen atoms and 6 oxygen atoms (i.e. Chemistry formula together C6H12O6).

Among this three usual monosaccharides, glucose is that most definition as it always exists as one of the two sugar molecules found in a disaccharide, plus the is the simple unit that renders up starch and glycogen. Furthermore, it is worth discussing that our mind is virtually exclusively dependency on glucose as power source.

Fructose, having the exact same chemical formula together glucose, has various chemical structure. Due to the fact that of its distinctive structure, that stimulates the taste buds which result in a sweet sensation. Furustos is the "sweetest" of all sugars (i.e. Through the highest intensity of sweetness) and it is most abundant in fruits and also honey.

On the contrary, galactose, the other monosaccharide, has actually low sweet intensity and can hardly ever be found free in foods. It combines v a glucose molecule to form the disaccharide lactose, frequently known as milk sugar, because it is found in milk (4.7% in cow"s milk and also 7% in person breast milk).

Another disaccharide that is not widely accessible in foods items is maltose. Maltose is created of two glucose molecules and also it is created when seed (e.g. Barley) germinate and starch division down during digestion.

The most acquainted disaccharide of every is sucrose, which us usually contact table street in our daily life. Sucrose is the mix of fructose and glucose. To create table sugar, sucrose is extract from the juices of street cane and also sugar beets. Sucrose is widely supplied as an ingredient for sweetening function in food production. Besides, that is often used to improve the texture, structure and consistency the foods. In addition, it also functions together a preservative in jams and also jellies.

Table: simple Carbohydrates (Sugars)

GlucoseSucrose (glucose + fructose)
FructoseLactose (glucose + galactose)
GalactoseMaltose (glucose + glucose)

Sugars Intake

Most world love sweets, however excessive intake may increase the risk of obesity. Obese people are an ext prone come chronic diseases, such together diabetes, hypertension and heart diseases. According to the human being Health Organization"s recommendation, much less than 10% of power contribution must come indigenous sugars included to foods during the production and also consumption plus organic sugars discovered in honey, fruit juices and also syrups. In other words, a 2000-kcal diet should have less 보다 50g that sugars.

Illustration: The Food Pyramid


With recommendation to the food pyramid, the is the optimal of the pyramid which represents the "Eat Less" level, thereby intake that sugars must be retained at a short level. To do so, individuals deserve to reduce the usage of sugars/syrups in beverages (one level and also one heaped teaspoon of sugars weigh around 4g and 6g respectively) and cut down the usage of confectionaries, desserts and soft drinks (one deserve to of soft drink contains around 30g come 43g of sugars, i.e. Close to a day"s limit). To learn around the sugar contents of foods, please visit the Nutrient details Inquiry device at the"s website .

See more: What Are The First Five Multiples Of 4, Least Common Multiple

Illustration: One heaped tespoon of street ≈ 6g, one level teaspoon of sugars ≈ 4g


After protein and carbohydrates, us will proceed the series on nutrition and also introduce the last macronutrient - fats in the next issue.