2.Cesare Lombroso, an Italian physician and criminologist, claimed that most criminals were 

people who had been mistreated by society. 

(UNDERSTAND; answer: F; page 195) 

3.Biological factors, including genetics, explain most criminal behavior. 

(REMEMBER; answer: F; page 195) 

4.Walter Reckless and Simon Dinitz developed containment theory, which claims that a strong 

superego helps boys stay out of trouble. 

(REMEMBER; answer: T; page 195) 

5.What is considered deviant is mostly the same behavior all around the world. 

(REMEMBER; answer: F; page 196) 

6

.Emile Durkheim’s analysis suggests it would be impossible for a society to completely 

eliminate deviance. 

(UNDERSTAND; answer: T; page 197) 

7

.Robert Merton claimed that the “strains of masculinity” are 

an important cause of crime. 

(REMEMBER; answer: F; pages 197-198) 

8.A poor person who has little chance to go to college and who sells illegal drugs to make money 

is one example of a deviant “innovator.”

(UNDERSTAND; answer: T; page 198) 

9.Albert Cohen suggested that lower-class youths form a delinquent subculture to gain the self-

respect that society denies them. 

(REMEMBER; answer: T; page 198) 

10.Labeling theory stresses that some actions are always wrong and others are always right. 

(REMEMBER; answer: F; page 200) 

11

.“Primary deviance” refers to the most serious offenses.

(REMEMBER; answer: F; page 200) 

12.The stigma of deviance can encourage an individual to engage in further deviance. 

(REMEMBER; answer: T; page 200) 

13.Psychiatrist Thomas Szasz states 

that the label of “insanity” is widely applied to behavior that