These are the two major categories the immunity.

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Specific and Nonspecific
What is the distinction between details and nonspecific immunity?Specific fights a details thing and nonspecific fights anything no itself
Cells used for nonspecific immunity space ____.Neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, and natural killer cells.
These are the two cells for certain immunity.B cells and T Cells
What are species of nonspecific immunity?species resistance, mechanical and also chimcal barriers, inflammation, phagocytosis, herbal killer cells, interferon, and also complement
What is the an initial line of defense?Skin and also mucus
What is the 2nd line that defense?Inflammation
What space the 4 indications of inflammation.Swelling, heat, redness, and also pain
What is the many common type of phagocyte?neutraphil
Anotehr surname for neutraphil is ____.pus
These form of cells break apart cell by damaging their plasma membranes.Natural Killer Cells
They interfere through the viruses capability to cause the disease.Interferon
They caus eht rupture the the international cell.Complement
What is the 3rd line of defense?Specific Immunity
These cells are dubbed cell-mediated immunity.T cells
This is the main white blood cell.Lymphocyte
What space the two varieties of antigens?Self and Non-self
Most antigens are what type?Nonself
These fight diseases.Antibodies
The end of the antibody wher the epitope is, is dubbed the what?antigen binding site
A family members of cell which have all lower from one cell.clone
What space pre-B cells?inactive B cells
What activates a B cell?a details antigen
What identify what an illness the antigen causes?its epitope or shape
What room the two species of B cells that are developed when a B cabinet is activated?plasma and memory
What type of B cells produces antibodies?plama cell
Antibodies are also called what?immunoglobulins
What are antibodies do from?proteins and amino acids
What form is an antibody?y shaped
What are the ends of an antibody called?variable regions
Is it possible for B cell to develop antibodies versus themselves?yes
The quantity of antibodies created in response to a vaccination is called what?antibody titer
A second injection tht raises the antibody titer come a level that is an ext likely to avoid infection is dubbed a ______.booster shot
When one antibody and an antigen combine, it exposes what?the complement binding site
What go the enhance protein do?It drills feet in the antigen and also causes the cell to swell and burst.
T cells walk to this prior to going come the lymph node.thymus
After a T-cell leaves the lymph node, wherein does it go?to the spleen
With a T cell, the antigen should be presented by a ______ before the T cell will fight it.macrophage
Chemical messengers are dubbed _______.lymphokines
What are the three types of T-cells?Killer T, helper T, and also suppressor T cells
These assist B cell to identify into plasma cells.Helper T cells
These stop B cell differentiation into plasma cells.Suppressor T cells, which space now dubbed regulatory T cells.
What is the theory regarding why cancer develops?Everyone has it, but due to the fact that cancer cells produce self and non-self antigens, it deserve to fool the lymphocytes into not fighting the cancer.
What is the immune system's solution to a threat?immune response
The research of immunityimmunology
Proteins that safeguard the body from pathogens are referred to as ______.antibodies
This transports escaped fluids back into the blood.lymphatic vessels
The fluid that stays in the organization spaces once blood is exchanged in the capillaries is called.interstitial fluid
The buildup of fluid in the human body is callededema
What room the attributes of lymphatic vessels?They form a one way system towards the heart, there is no pump
This drains lymph native the appropriate arm and also right next of the head and thoraxright lymphatic duct
This obtain lymph native the rest of the bodythoracic duct
These filter lymph prior to it is returned to the blood.lymph nodes
These are large cells the engulf and also destroy international substances prior to it enters the blood.macrophages
This is a form of white blood cell that is situated in the lymph node.lymphyocyte
What is one antigen?a foreign substance in the body
What form are lymph nodes?kidney-shaped
Is the circulation of lymph v a lymph node sluggish or fast?It is very slow to permit lymphocytes and also macrophages time to perform their functions.
This body organ is located on the left side of the abdomen and filters blood, no lymph.spleen
What is the many important duty of the spleen?To ruin worn out blood cells.
What body organ of the lymphatic system develops blood cells in the fetus and serves together a hematopoietic site?spleen
What two organs act together blood reservoirs during a hemorrhage?spleen and also liver
This lymphatic body organ is situated in the mediastium.Thymus gland
When go the thymus duty at top levels?only throughout childhood. The size of the thymus is largest throughout puberty.
In progressed age, the thymus is largely replaced with ____.fat
The thymus to produce hormones prefer thymosin. What does thymosin do?It programs the lymphocytes to lug out your roles.
Small masses of lymphoid tissue roughly the pharynx?Tonsils
What is the purpose of the tonsils?To trap and remove bacteria and other foreign material
These are uncovered in the wall surface of the tiny intestines and also resemble tonsils in structure.peyer's patches
What go MALT stand for?Mucosa-Associated Lymphatic Tissue
What does malt tissue do?It acts as a sentinel to defend respiratory and also digestive tracts
The inherent defense device is likewise called the _______ defense system.nonspecific
The adaptive defense system is additionally called the _______ system.specific
What walk the term types resistance refer to?It describes the phenomenon in ~ the genetic features common to a certain kind that organism.
The very first line that defense in nonspecific immunity is surface ar membrane barriers. What walk this include?skin, rubber membranes, saliva, sticky mucous, HCl mountain in the stomach, ph and also sebum that skin.
The second line of defense is nonspecific immunity. What cells and chemicals are connected with this heat of defense?phagocytes, natural killer cells, inflammation response, and also fever
What type of phagocytic cabinet is commonly the first to come at the website of one injury?neutrophil
What space the two varieties of anitmicrobial proteins?complement and interferon
What gland controls warmth regulation because that the body?hypothalamus
Humoral immunity, also called antibody-mediated immune is carried out through which type of lymphocyte?B cells
Cellular immunity, also called cell-mediated immunity, is carried out through what form of lymphocytes?T-cells
What room some common antigens?nucleic acids, some lipids, pollen grains, and also microorganisms
What room the two parts of the third line of defense, also called the adaptive defense system?Nonself antigen defense and also self antigen defense
What causes an allergy?Many molecules (called haptens or incomplete antigens, link up with proteins in the body. The immune system may recognize this protein-hapten mix as foreign and start to strike it.
What are some typical chemicals the act as haptens?they are uncovered in poison ivy, animal dander, some detergents, hair dyes and also cosmetics.
What walk the hatchet immunocompetent mean?The cell becomes capable of responding come a certain antigen
Where room lymphocytes made?red bone marrow
Where execute B cells come to be immunocompetent?in bone marrow
Where execute T cells end up being immunocompetent?in the thymus
Once a lymphocyte is immunocompetent, it will certainly only be able to react to _____ distinct antigen.one
Lymphocytes become immunocompetent ____ conference the antigen.before
Monocytes to happen in the bone marrow and also develop right into __________ within 8 come 12 hrs of beginning tissues.macrophages
When does activation that a B cabinet occur?When over there is one encounter in between an inactive B cell and also its certain antigen.
___________ immunity occurs once B cells encounter antigens and produce antibodiesactive immunity
What space 2 ways energetic immunity can be acquired.being exposed come the an illness in the atmosphere or artificially through a shot
___________ immune occurs once antibodies are derived from who elsepassive
How can passive immune be naturally acquired.A mother's antibodies deserve to cross the placenta and enter fetal circulation and after birth during breastfeeding.
How can passive immune be gained artificially?from immune serum or gamma globulin
Antibodies are comprised of 2 ___ chains and also 2 ___ chains, both that which are disulfide bondslight, dark
A hefty chain of one antibody contains around _______ amino acids.400
Type that antibody discovered mainly in mucus, saliva and tearsIgA
Type the antibody important in activation of B cell.IgD
The only kind of antibody that have the right to cross the placentaIgG
Type the antibody that have the right to fix complementigM
type that antibody the is involved in allergies.IgE
The transforming the antigens that room toxic into harmless cells is brought about when antibodies tie to certain sites ~ above bacteria or viruses and also cause cabinet injury. This is well-known as ___________naturalization
When one antigen-antibody reaction reasons clotting this is called ____________agglutination
When an antibody exposes a hidden complement binding site and an antigen binds to this which causes a hole to kind and water to sirloin in that is called.complement
For a T cell to work, the antigen must have been presented to the T cell by a ___________.macrophage
What space the four species of grafts?autografts, isografts, allografts, and also xenografts
Tissue transplanted from one website to one more site on the same personautograft
tissue grafts taken from an unrelated personallograft
tissue taken indigenous an similar twin.isograft
tissue taken from a different animal speciesxenografts
This is essential to protect against rejection that tissue and also can include drugs, radiation, and also controlling inflammation.immunosuppressive therapy
Allergies are also called ______hypersensitivity
Allergies are prompted by a release of _________ native IgE binding come mast cells.histamines
What are the impacts of histamines?cause little blood ship to end up being dilated and leaky. It deserve to lead come a runny nose, watery eyes, itching, hives, constriction that airways, and irregular love rhythms
What is anaphylatic shock?Occurs when an allergen directly enters the blood and rapidly circulates v the body
When symptoms happen 1-3 work after contact with an antigen it is referred to as _______delayed hypersensitivity
How is delayed hypersensitivity treated?with corticosteroid drugs
What room common varieties of delay hypersensitivity?contact dermatitis (poison ivy), some cosmetic and deoderant chemicals as well as nickel.
What room some examples of autoimmune diseases?multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis, type I diabetes, rheumotoid arthritis, systemic lupus, reynaud's disease,
Except because that the _________ and _________, the lymphoid organs room poorly occurred before birth.

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thymus, spleen
What causes autoimmune diseases?inefficient lymphocyte programming, figure of self-proteins in circulation that have actually not to be exposed come the immune system, cross-reaction of antibodies produced versus foreign antigens v self-antigens.
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