About permissions | Changing permissions with chmodChanging default permissions | Managing groups

This information is intended to help GLADE file system users understand common POSIX-standard commands. Note that:

Experienced users may prefer to manage permissions using octal numbers rather than the methods described below.

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Existing files and directories

Should you need to change permissions for existing files or directories – to allow other users to modify or execute them, for example – follow the chmod examples below.

New files and directories

Files and directories that you create in your GLADE file spaces have certain permissions by default. To change the default settings, use the umask command described below.

Don’t run "sudo" on sdrta.net systemsUse of the sudo command on Cheyenne and other systems that sdrta.net manages is restricted to authorized users and sdrta.net staff members. The command fails and raises a security alert to the system administrators when unauthorized users try to run it – for example, when attempting to install software packages system-wide or to act on other users’ files. sdrta.net logs such failed attempts and contacts users to offer assistance. If you need help with tasks that you think require sudo privileges, or if you aren’t sure, it is best to contact sdrta.net before running sudo yourself.

About permissions

Files in a UNIX system have associated permissions that determine who can read (r), write (w), and execute (x) them.

Directory permissions use those same flags to indicate who can list files in a directory (r), create and remove files in the directory (w), or cd into or traverse (x) the directory. Carefully consider both the file permissions and the directory permissions to get the desired end result. For example, you can give a user read permission for a file, but the user won"t have access to it without also having permission to traverse the directory tree that contains the file.

Three additional things to note regarding directory permissions:

Users who have write permission for a directory can delete files in the directory without having write permission for those files. 

About execute flags: X vs. x

When setting permissions, the execute flag can be set to upper-case X, which differs from the lower-case x setting. The X permission allows execution only if the target is a directory or if the execute permission has already been set for the user or group. It is useful in the case of handling directory trees recursively.

* * *

To see who can work with your files and directories, log in and look at the output of an ls ‑l command.

Here is an example.


The first column is a string of 10 permission flags.

The first flag indicates, for most directory contents, that what is listed is a file (-) or a directory (d).

The other nine flags, in groups of three, indicate:

- the user’s (owner’s) permissions-rwxr-xr-x
- group members’ permissions-rwxr-xr-x
- others’ permissions-rwxr-xr-x

"Others" means everyone else who can log in on the machine.

Changing permissions with chmod

To modify the permission flags on existing files and directories, use the chmod command ("change mode"). It can be used for individual files or it can be run recursively with the -R option to change permissions for all of the subdirectories and files within a directory.

The chmod command specifies which class or classes (user, group, other) have access to the file or directory in various modes (read, write, execute).

Use the operators + and - to add or remove selected permissions for a class without changing its other permissions.Use = to specify all of the permissions for a class at once. If a class is not mentioned explicitly, the permissions are unchanged even if the = operator is used for a different class.

Follow this format:

chmod filename


Add selected permissions for a groupOnly the owner can read, write, and execute this file:

-rwx------ 1 username group 57 Apr 11 12:29 filenameAdd group (g) permissions to read (r) and execute (x) like this:

chmod g+rx filenameThe new file permissions are shown here:

-rwxr-x--- 1 username group 57 May 14 09:54 filenameNote that the permissions that were not specified were not changed: The user class permissions and other class permissions did not change, and the writing permission for the group class remains unchanged.

Specify all permissions for a group

To set permissions for a single class, such as group (g), use the = operator.

chmod g=rx filenameIn this case, the only permissions affected were those for the specified class: group. The group can only read or execute the file, but not write. Permissions for the user class and other class were not changed because they were not specified.

Specify permissions for sets of classes

To set permissions for multiple classes with a single command, separate the class settings with a comma.

chmod u=rwx,g=rwx,o+rx filenameThe new file permissions are shown here:

-rwxrwxr-x 1 username group 57 May 14 09:54 filenameSet permissions selectivelyThis example shows how to give your group access to all of the files and subdirectories in a directory but limit other users" access to specified files.

chmod -R u=rwx,g=rwx,o+x /glade/u/home/username/directory/chmod u=rwx,g=rwx,o+rx /glade/u/home/username/directory/subdirectory/file1chmod u=rwx,g=rwx,o+rx /glade/u/home/username/directory/subdirectory/file2The result is that group members have all rights to files in the specified directories and subdirectories. Others have permission to traverse the directories as needed to read and execute two specified files.

Changing default permissions with umask

To change the default permissions that are set when you create a file or directory within a session or with a script, use the umask command.

The syntax is similar to that of chmod (above), but use the = operator to set the default permissions.


The umask examples shown here will give you and group members read, write, and execute permission. Others will have only read and execute permission.

bash users

umask u=rwx,g=rwx,o=rxtcsh usersumask 002

Managing groups

Several additional commands are useful for managing groups to control who can access files and directories. For example, you can limit access to users who share your core-hour or storage space allocation.

Say you don"t want all members of the ncar group to have group permissions to read, write, and execute certain files. You should have a UNIX group that corresponds to your project code – such as group uabc0001 for project code UABC0001. You can use the commands described below to set or change group ownership of certain files and directories so only members of that UNIX group have permission to access them.

If there is no group that allows you to share as needed with other users who have NCAR user accounts:

Request creation of a custom group.

To share with colleagues who do not have NCAR user accounts, consider using the NCAR Data Sharing Service.

Identifying current group and others - id

Files or directories that you create or edit become associated with your current UNIX group. Usually, that is your default primary group unless you change groups after you log in. (See "Changing current group" below.)

If you aren"t sure what your current group is, or which other groups you belong to, you can find out by running the id command after you log in. It will return your user ID (uid) and your current group (gid), and it will list any other groups with which you are associated.


iduid=12345(jsmith) gid=1000(ncar) groups=1000(ncar),54321(sdrta.net)

Changing current group - sg

To change from one group to another during a login session, follow this example using the sg command and the name of the new group.

sg new_groupnameThe command will start a new shell with your new current group ID in effect. When you exit that shell, you change back to your previously used group ID.

Some users prefer newgrp over sg for this, but sg has the advantage of retaining your existing user environment while changing your current group.

Changing default group

To change your default primary group – the group that will be in effect each time you subsequently log in – use the Systems Accounting Manager (SAM). Changes made in SAM typically take effect the next business day.

Changing group ownership of a file or directory - chgrp

Use chgrp as shown here to change ownership of a file or directory to a different group.

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chgrp new_groupname filenamechgrp new_groupname directoryTo change group ownership of a directory and all of the files and subdirectories in that directory, use chgrp recursively.