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Global references on Physical task for Health. Geneva: people Health Organization; 2010.


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Accumulation

The principle of conference a particular physical task dose or score by performing task in short bouts, then adding together the time spent during each of these bouts. Because that example, a goal of 30 minutes every day have the right to be met through performing 3 bouts of 10 minutes each throughout the work (34).

Aerobic physical activity

Activity in i beg your pardon the body’s large muscles move in a rhythmic manner for a sustained period of time. Aerobic activity – additionally called endurance task – boosts cardiorespiratory fitness. Examples include walking, running, and swimming, and also bicycling (34).

Balance training

Static and dynamic practice that space designed to boost an individual’s capacity to withstand challenges from postural persuade or destabilizing stimuli brought about by self-motion, the environment, or other objects (34).

Bone-strengthening activity

Physical activity primarily draft to rise the stamin of particular sites in bones that make up the skeletal system. Bone-strengthening tasks produce an influence or tension pressure on the bones that promotes bone growth and also strength. Running, jumping rope, and also lifting weights are instances of bone-strengthening activities (34).

Cardiorespiratory fitness (endurance)

A health-related ingredient of physics fitness. The ability of the circulatory and respiratory systems to it is provided oxygen throughout sustained physics activity. Generally expressed as measured or approximated maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max).

Dose

In the field of physical activity, dose refers to the lot of physical task performed through the topic or participants. The full dose or quantity is identified by the three components of activity: frequency, duration, and also intensity. Frequency is generally expressed in sessions, episodes, or bouts every day or per week. Term is the length of time because that each bout the any particular activity. Intensity is the price of power expenditure important to do the task to achieve the desired role (aerobic activity) or the magnitude of the pressure exerted during resistance exercise (34).

Domains of physics activity

Physical task levels can be assessed in miscellaneous domains, consisting of one of much more of the following: leisure-time activity, work-related activity, family members activity, and also commuting task (34).

Dose-response

The relationship between the sheep of physical activity and the wellness or fitness outcome of interest is considered the dose-response. The dose can be measure in regards to a solitary component of activity (e.g., frequency, duration, intensity) or as the full amount. This concept is comparable to the prescription that a medication wherein the expected an answer will vary as the sheep of the medicine is changed. The dose-response relationship deserve to be linear, exponential, or hyperbolic, and it is most likely to vary depending on the main measure that interest. Because that example, enhancements in cardiorespiratory fitness, bone health, or adiposity are usual dose-response procedures of interest. A sheep of physical task may exist below that which no effect has to be detected and also a dose over that i m sorry no result has been detected. These seemingly lowest and highest doses of task may be referred to as “thresholds,” but the term should be provided with caution as these obvious limits may be much more related to restrictions of measurement than to true organic limits (34).

Duration

The length of time in which an activity or practice is performed. Expression is typically expressed in minute (34).

Exercise

A subcategory the physical activity that is planned, structured, repetitive, and purposeful in the sense that the advancement or maintenance of one or more components of physics fitness is the objective. “Exercise” and “exercise training” generally are supplied interchangeably and also generally refer to physical task performed during leisure time through the primary purpose of improving or preserving physical fitness, physics performance, or health.

Flexibility

A health- and also performance-related ingredient of physics fitness that is the selection of motion possible at a joint. Versatility is details to every joint and also depends on a variety of specific variables including, but not restricted to, the tightness of specific ligaments and also tendons. Versatility exercises enhance the ability of a share to move through that is full range of motion (34).

Frequency

The variety of times an exercise or activity is performed. Frequency is usually expressed in sessions, episodes, or bouts every week (34).

Guidelines and also Recommendations

A WHO tip is any document that contains recommendations about health interventions, whether they room clinical, public wellness or plan interventions. Recommendations carry out information about what policy-makers, health treatment providers, or patients have to do. They suggest a selection between various interventions that have actually an influence on health and also that have actually ramifications for resource use (8).

Health-enhancing physics activity

Activity that, when added to baseline activity, produces wellness benefits. Brisk walking, jumping rope, dancing, playing tennis or soccer, lifting weights, climbing on playground equipment at recess, and also doing yoga space all examples of health-enhancing physical task (34).

Intensity

Intensity refers to the price at which work-related is gift performed or the size of the effort required to execute an activity or exercise. Intensity can be expressed either in pure or relative terms:

Leisure-time physics activity

Physical task performed by an individual the is not forced as crucial activity of everyday living and also is performed at the discretion that the individual. Such activities include sports participation, exercise conditioning or training, and also recreational tasks such together going because that a walk, dancing, and also gardening (34).

Maximal oxygen absorb (VO2max)

The body’s volume to transport and also use oxygen throughout a maximal exertion including dynamic convulsion of huge muscle groups, together as throughout running or cycling. The is likewise known together maximal aerobic power and also cardiorespiratory endurance capacity. Top oxygen intake (VO2peak) is the highest rate of oxygen consumption observed during an exhaustive practice test (34).

MET

MET describes metabolic equivalent and also 1 MET is the price of energy expenditure while sit at rest. The is bring away by convention to it is in an oxygen absorb of 3.5 milliliters every kilogram that body load per minute. Physical activities frequently are classified by your intensity, making use of the MET together a reference.

Moderate-intensity physics activity

On an absolute scale, moderate intensity refers to the physical task that is performed in ~ 3.0–5.9 times the intensity of rest. ~ above a scale relative to one individual’s an individual capacity, moderate-intensity physical task is usually a 5 or 6 on a scale of 0–10 (34).

Muscle-strengthening activity

Physical task and exercise, that increases skeletal muscle strength, power, endurance, and also mass (e.g. Toughness training, resistance training, or muscular strength and also endurance exercises) (34).

Physical activity

Any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles the requires power expenditure (5).

Physical inactivity

An absence of physical task or exercise.

Primary prevention

Actions that seek to reduce threats in the entire populace regardless of every individual’s level that risk and potential benefits. The on purpose of major prevention interventions is to move the profile of the whole population in a healthy direction. Tiny changes in risk factors in the bulk who space at short to middle risk can have a significant impact in terms of population-attributable danger of death and also disability (6).

Secondary prevention

Focuses action on the people likely to benefit, or advantage most. Second prevention interventions are based on screening exposed populations for the at an early stage onset of sub-clinical illnesses and also administering treatment (6).

Sport

Sport consists a range of tasks performed within a collection of rules and also undertaken as part of recreation or competition. Sporting tasks usually involve physical task carried out by teams or individuals and are supported by an institutional framework, such as a sporting agency (24).

Vigorous-intensity physics activity

On an absolute scale, vigorous intensity refers to physical task that is performed in ~ 6.0 or an ext times the soot of remainder for adults and also typically 7.0 or more times for children and also youth. Top top a scale relative to one individual’s an individual capacity, vigorous-intensity physical activity is normally a 7 or 8 on a range of 0–10 (34).

Major muscle groups

Major muscle groups include the legs, hips, back, abdomen, chest, shoulders and arms (34).

Type of physical activity

The mode of authorized in physics activity. The type of physical task can take on countless forms: aerobic, strength, flexibility, balance.

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Volume

Aerobic exercise exposures deserve to be defined by one interaction between bout intensity, frequency, duration, and also longevity that the programme. The product of these attributes can be thought of together volume and can be represented by the complete energy expenditure (EE) that the practice exposure (34).