VALENCESHELL ELECTRON PAIR REPULSION (VSEPR) MODEL

Assumptions the the VSEPR Model:

1. Electrons repel eachother. Electron bag in the valence shell orbitals of an atom exertrepulsive pressures on various other electron pairs.

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2. Electron bag adoptconfiguration that minimization the electron pair repulsions in the valence shell.

3. Multiple bonds count together asingle pair that electrons.

Determination of shortcut Angles

1. Lone pair electronsoccupy more space than bonding electrons. The visibility of lone pairelectrons will certainly distort predicted shortcut angles.

e.g. No lonepairs one lone pairtwo lone pairs

CH4NH3H2O

109.5o107o104.5o

2. Many bonds perform notaffect the gross stereosdrta.netistry that the molecule. The geometry ofthe molecule is determined by the number of bonded atoms plus the number of lonepairs that electrons about the main atom.

Note: Geometry describes thebond angles about a central atom. Geometry is determined by thetotal variety of bonded atoms and also lone pairs approximately the central atom. Shape(or molecular structure) describes the position of the atoms in amolecule. Form is identified by the family member placement of the bondedatoms approximately the central atom. Because that a molecule, geometry and shape room thesame only as soon as there are no lone bag of electrons approximately the centralatom.

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Examples total bonds + e- pairs lone e- pairs Lewis structure Geometry Shape Structure Bond angles Hybridization
CO2†

2

0
*
linear linear 180 sp
CH2O† 3 0
*
trigonal planar trigonal planar 120 sp2
SO2† 3 1
*
trigonal planar V-shaped or bent

120 sp2
CH4 4 0
*
tetrahedral tetrahedral 109.5 sp3
NH3 4 1
*
tetrahedral trigonal pyramid 107 sp3
H2O 4 2
*
tetrahedral V-shaped or bent 104.5 sp3
HCl 4 3
*
tetrahedral linear 180 sp3
PCl5 5 0
*
trigonal bipyramid trigonal bipyramid 120, 90, 180 sp3d
SF4‡ 5 1
*
trigonal bipyramid see-saw 120, 90, 180 sp3d
ClF3‡ 5 2
*
trigonal bipyramid T-shaped 90, 180 sp3d
KrF2‡ 5 3
*
trigonal bipyramid linear 180 sp3d
SF6 6 0
*
octahedral octahedral 90, 180 sp3d2
ICl5 6 1
*
octahedral square pyramid 90, 180 sp3d2
XeF4* 6 2
*
octahedral square planar 90, 180 sp3d2

†Multiple bonds execute not affect the geometry that a molecule, i.e., multiple binding = single bonds, in effect.‡Lone pair electrons occupy the roomier, equatorial orbitals.*Lone pairs occupy orbitals as far from each other as possible.