Gallium

facet 31 of regular table is Gallium through atomic number 31, atomic load 69.723. Gallium, symbol Ga, has a Base centered Orthorhombic structure and also Silver color. Gallium is a post-transition metal element. Trivial name of Gallium is triels, icosagens. Know everything about Gallium Facts, physics Properties, chemical Properties, digital configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.


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Gallium is a chemical facet with symbol Ga and also atomic number 31. Element gallium go not occur in free type in nature, yet as the gallium(III) compounds that room in trace amounts in zinc ores and also in bauxite. Gallium is a soft, silvery metal, and elemental gallium is a brittle solid at low temperatures, and melts in ~ 29.76 °C (85.57 °F) (slightly above room temperature).

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Gallium Facts

Read an essential information and facts about element Gallium

name Gallium
atomic Number 31
atom Symbol Ga
Atomic weight 69.723
step Solid
color Silver
Classification post-transition metal
team in periodic Table 13
Group Name boron family
period in routine Table 4
Block in routine Table p-block
Electronic Configuration 3d10 4s2 4p1
Melting point 29.76 °C
Boiling point 2204 °C
Electronic shell Structure <2, 8, 18, 3>
CAS Number CAS7440-55-3

ar
13
Al
14
Si
30
Zn
31
Ga
32
Ge
48
Cd
49
In
50
Sn
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
1
1
H
2
He
2
3
Li
4
Be
5
B
6
C
7
N
8
O
9
F
10
Ne
3
11
Na
12
Mg
13
Al
14
Si
15
P
16
S
17
Cl
18
Ar
4
19
K
20
Ca
21
Sc
22
Ti
23
V
24
Cr
25
Mn
26
Fe
27
Co
28
Ni
29
Cu
30
Zn
31
Ga
32
Ge
33
As
34
Se
35
Br
36
Kr
5
37
Rb
38
Sr
39
Y
40
Zr
41
Nb
42
Mo
43
Tc
44
Ru
45
Rh
46
Pd
47
Ag
48
Cd
49
In
50
Sn
51
Sb
52
Te
53
I
54
Xe
6
55
Cs
56
Ba
72
Hf
73
Ta
74
W
75
Re
76
Os
77
Ir
78
Pt
79
Au
80
Hg
81
Tl
82
Pb
83
Bi
84
Po
85
At
86
Rn
7
87
Fr
88
Ra
104
Rf
105
Db
106
Sg
107
Bh
108
Hs
109
Mt
110
Ds
111
Rg
112
Cn
113
Nh
114
Fl
115
Mc
116
Lv
117
Ts
118
Og
Lanthanides
57
La
58
Ce
59
Pr
60
Nd
61
Pm
62
Sm
63
Eu
64
Gd
65
Tb
66
Dy
67
Ho
68
Er
69
Tm
70
Yb
71
Lu
Actinide
89
Ac
90
Th
91
Pa
92
U
93
Np
94
Pu
95
Am
96
Cm
97
Bk
98
Cf
99
Es
100
Fm
101
Md
102
No
103
Lr

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How to locate Gallium on routine Table

Periodic table is i ordered it by atom number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atom number rises from left come right. Regular table starts at top left ( atomic number 1) and also ends at bottom ideal (atomic number 118). Thus you can directly look for atomic number 31 to find Gallium on periodic table.

Another way to read routine table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To find Gallium on routine table look for cross section of team 13 and duration 4 in the contemporary periodic table.

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Table of Contents


History
Abundance
Physical Properties
Thermal Properties
Crystal Structure
Atomic & orbit Properties
Chemical Properties
Isotopes
Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines
Databases
Compare Gallium with various other elements

Gallium History

The aspect Gallium was discovered by Lecoq de Boisbaudran in year 1875 in France . Gallium acquired its surname from Gallia, the Latin surname for France

Gallium Presence: variety in Nature and also Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Gallium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth"s Crust, Oceans and also Human Body.

Ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)
abundance in world 1×10-6%
variety in sun 4×10-6%
variety in Meteorites 7.6e-06
Abundance in Earth"s late 1.9e-05
variety in seas 3×10-9%
variety in people N/A

Crystal structure of Gallium

The solid state structure of Gallium is Base centered Orthorhombic.

The decision structure deserve to be defined in terms of its unit Cell. The unit cell repeats chin in 3 dimensional room to type the structure.

Unit cabinet Parameters

The unit cell is represented in regards to its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cabinet edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

a b c
451.97 766.33 452.6 pm

and the angles between them Lattice angles (alpha, beta and also gamma).

alpha beta gamma
π/2 π/2 π/2

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cabinet are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured native a reference lattice point.

The symmetry nature of the decision are described by the principle of room groups. All feasible symmetric kinds of corpuscle in three-dimensional space are defined by the 230 space groups (219 unique types, or 230 if chiral copies are thought about distinct.

an are Group surname Cmca
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space Group Number 64
Crystal framework Base focused Orthorhombic

Gallium Atomic and also Orbital Properties

Gallium atoms have actually 31 electrons and the digital shell structure is <2, 8, 18, 3> v Atomic term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 2P1/2.


atomic Number 31
Number of electrons (with no charge) 31
Number of Protons 31
Mass Number 70
Number of Neutrons 39
Shell framework (Electrons per energy level) <2, 8, 18, 3>
Electron construction 3d10 4s2 4p1
Valence Electrons 4s2 4p1
Oxidation State -5;-4;-2;-1 1;2;3
Atomic term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 2P1/2

Shell structure of Gallium - electron per energy level


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Ground State electronic Configuration the Gallium - neutral Gallium atom

The floor state electronic configuration that Neutral Gallium atom is 3d10 4s2 4p1. The section of Gallium configuration the is identical to the noble gas that the coming before period, is abbreviated as . For atoms with countless electrons, this notation can become prolonged and therefore an abbreviated notation is used.This is crucial as that is the Valence electrons 3d10 4s2 4p1, electron in the outermost covering that determine the chemical properties of the element.

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Unabbreviated digital configuration of neutral Gallium

Complete soil state digital configuration for the Gallium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p1

Atomic structure of Gallium

Gallium atom radius is 136 pm, while it"s covalent radius is 126 pm.

atomic Radius

136 pm (1.36 Å)

Atomic Volume 11.8094512195 cm3
Covalent Radius 126 afternoon (1.26 Å)
valve der Waals Radius 187 pm
neutron Cross section 2.9 σa/barns

Atomic Spectrum the Gallium

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Gallium chemical Properties: Gallium Ionization Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of Gallium is 28.9 kJ/mol

Valence 3
Electronegativity 1.81
ElectronAffinity 28.9 kJ/mol

Ionization energy of Gallium

Refer come table below for Ionization energies of Gallium

Ionization energy number Enthalpy - kJ/mol
1 578.8
2 1979.3
3 2963
4 6180

Gallium physics Properties

Refer to listed below table because that Gallium physical Properties

density 5.904 g/cm3
Molar Volume 11.8094512195 cm3

Elastic Properties

Young Modulus N/A
Shear Modulus N/A
mass Modulus N/A
Poisson proportion N/A

Hardness that Gallium - exam to measure of Hardness of Element

Mohs Hardness 1.5 MPa
Vickers Hardness N/A
Brinell Hardness 60 MPa

Gallium electrical Properties

Gallium is Conductor that electricity. Describe table listed below for the electrical properties of Gallium

electric Conductivity 7.1×106 S/m
Resistivity 1.4×10-7 m Ω
Superconducting suggest 1.083

Gallium Heat and also Conduction Properties

heat Conductivity 29 W/(m K)
Thermal development 0.00012 K-1

Gallium Magnetic Properties

Magnetic kind Diamagnetic
Curie allude N/A
mass Magnetic Susceptibility -3×10-9
Molar Magnetic Susceptibility -2.09×10-10
Volume Magnetic Susceptibility -1.77e-05

Optical properties of Gallium

Refractive table of contents N/A

Acoustic nature of Gallium

speed of Sound 2740 m/s

Gallium heat Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

Refer to table below for thermal properties that Gallium

Melting point 302.91 K (29.76 °C)
Boiling allude 2477 K (2204 °C)
an essential Temperature N/A
Superconducting allude 1.083

Enthalpies of Gallium

heat of fusion 5.59 kJ/mol
warm of Vaporization 256 kJ/mol
warmth of combustion N/A

Gallium isotope - nuclear Properties that Gallium

Isotopes that rhodium. Naturally arising Gallium has 2 steady isotope - 69Ga, 71Ga.


Isotope Isotope mass % abundance T fifty percent Decay setting
56Ga
57Ga
58Ga
59Ga
60Ga
61Ga
62Ga
63Ga
64Ga
65Ga
66Ga
67Ga
68Ga
69Ga 60.108% steady N/A
70Ga
71Ga 39.892% stable N/A
72Ga
73Ga
74Ga
75Ga
76Ga
77Ga
78Ga
79Ga
80Ga
81Ga
82Ga
83Ga
84Ga
85Ga
86Ga

Regulatory and also Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

CAS Number CAS7440-55-3
RTECS Number RTECSLW8600000
dot Hazard course 8
period Numbers 2803
EU Number N/A
NFPA Fire Rating 0
NFPA perils N/A
NFPA wellness Rating 1
NFPA Reactivity Rating 0
Autoignition point N/A
Flashpoint N/A

Database Search

list of distinct identifiers to search the facet in assorted chemical registry databases

Database identifier number
CAS Number - chemical Abstracts company (CAS) CAS7440-55-3
CID Number CID5360835
Gmelin Number N/A
NSC Number N/A
RTECS Number RTECSLW8600000

Compare Gallium with all Group 13 elements

Gallium vs Boron Gallium vs Aluminium Gallium vs Indium Gallium vs Thallium Gallium vs Nihonium

Compare Gallium with all post-transition metal elements

Gallium vs Aluminium Gallium vs Indium Gallium vs believe Gallium vs Thallium Gallium vs command Gallium vs Bismuth Gallium vs Nihonium Gallium vs Flerovium Gallium vs Moscovium Gallium vs Livermorium