May 9, 2018/in Articles.2018-BRJ47-1 /by admin

This write-up was composed by Allison Davidson - Mike Huber

This post was published in the spring 2018 Baseball study Journal

One the the many exciting achievements in major league baseball is exciting due to the fact that of its rarity. When a batter hits because that the cycle, he it s okay a single, double, triple, and also home operation in the exact same game. From 1876 v the end of the 2017 constant season, there have actually been just 319 instances of a batter accomplishing this feat.1 offered that there have actually been 214,651 games played, hitting because that the bike is undoubtedly a rarely event, together it has arisen in fewer 보다 1% the all games (0.149%, to be more precise).2 come date, no game has seen more than one batter hit for the cycle.

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The function of this file is twofold. First, we will administer evidence of as soon as the phrase hitting for the cycle was popularized by the media to explain the feat, and how the phrase progressed to what we use today. Transparent the paper, us will use bold font to show the actual bike descriptors uncovered in the papers of the day. Not till the 70th event of a cycle did someone in the media try to characterize the four various hits with a common label, and an ext than 20 extr occurrences take it place prior to the characterization was popularized together “hitting because that the cycle” and used transparent the country. Second, we will carry out descriptive statistics ~ above the occasion itself and how attaining the bike has adjusted over time. In current seasons, the bespeak in i m sorry a batter is most most likely to obtain a cycle has changed, especially in regards come the final hit. For example, is the critical hit of a cycle most most likely a triple? has it always been the way?

The an initial Cycle

Charles “Curry” Foley came to be the an initial batter to hit because that the bike on might 25, 1882, hitting a bases-loaded home run in the an initial inning, a triple in the second, a double in the fifth, and a single in the seventh. Foley had 10 complete bases in six at-bats, and also his cycle occurred in reverse organic order. A herbal cycle indicates that the hits are in stimulate of full bases with solitary first, then double, triple, and also home run. A reverse herbal cycle suggests the the contrary order. Buffalo blasted the Cleveland Blues, 20-1, of which four runs were scored by Foley.3 he was plainly the hero because that the Buffalo Bisons on this day, yet the daily newspapers explained Foley’s accomplishment without much fanfare.

Some resources (including Retrosheet and list the George hall is actually the first person come hit for the cycle, in a game on June 14, 1876. Michael Huber, an writer of this paper, uncovered an entry on and then researched the game in numerous newspaper accounts. Hall, playing for the Athletic society of Philadelphia, go get 5 hits in the contest versus the Cincinnati Red Stockings, and all papers sources agree the he had actually a single, a house run, and at least two triples. However, the Philadelphia Times (the hometown paper) reported that Hall also had a double, hence meeting the meaning of a cycle, while the New York Clipper and the Cincinnati Enquirer every reported three triples and also no double (see keep in mind 1). In Huber’s summary of the game, the cites author Matt Albertson, that writes that john Thorn, the official chronicler of significant League Baseball, does not believe that room hit because that the cycle. Therefore, as this bike is in dispute, we carry out not include it in ours study. Foley’s performance is clear: 4 different type hits in the very same game.

Since Foley’s bike in 1882, there have been 318 added cycles with 2017. A frequency chart, by season, that the variety of times a batter has actually hit because that the bike is shown in number 1. There have actually been two seasons—1933 and 2009—where eight cycles occurred, each by a various batter. There have actually been plenty of seasons where no batter hit because that the cycle.


Figure 1: Frequency distribution of cycles, 1882-2017

As another way to view the data, we will display the circulation by era. The website divides professional baseball right into seven eras: 19th Century Era (1876–1900), Dead sphere Era (1901–19), Lively sphere Era (1920–41), Integration Era (1942–60), expansion Era (1961–76), free Agency Era (1977–93), and also Long round Era (1994–2005).4 We extend this last group to 2017, to encompass the current games. The distribution of cycles by era is presented in number 2.


Figure 2: Frequency circulation of cycles by era

Figure 2 reflects the number of cycles increased considerably during the Lively ball Era. In fact, every season in the Lively ball Era produced at the very least one cycle. As no every era has actually the same number of games played, number 3 display screens the number of cycles every 1000 gamings by decade. As was watched in the boost in the variety of cycles throughout the Lively ball Era (1920s and 1930s), the price of attaining a cycle substantially increased in the 1920s and also 1930s as well. The is perhaps as such explosion that cycles the writers began penning different phrases to explain the event, stable on the term cycle in the early on 1930s, the middle portion of the Lively ball Era.


Figure 3: price of Cycles (per 1000 games) by Decade

“Hitting because that the Cycle”

According come The Dickson Baseball Dictionary, the very first printed usage of hit because that the cycle was in 1933.5 The Washington Post defined Philadelphia’s Jimmie Foxx’s accomplishment of august 14, 1933, with, “ is among only six players in all significant league background to ‘hit for the cycle,’ that is, acquire a single, double, triple and also homer in 4 times in ~ bat in one game.”6 the article appeared on September 27, 1933. The other five players to be not detailed in the article.

However, the word cycle was actually offered in paper definition twelve year earlier! In the respectable 21, 1921, execution of the Tennessean, it was reported that George Sisler “hit the cycle” (see number 4).7


Figure 4: cite of bike in The Tennessean, respectable 21, 1921

We found no cite of the word cycle for one more ten years. Then, on may 18, 1931, Brooklyn Robins batter Babe Herman had four various hits in a home video game at Ebbets Field versus Cincinnati. This to be Herman’s very first of two cycles the the season (the other coming on July 24 versus Pittsburgh at Forbes Field) and of three in his career. An Associated Press (AP) story dated might 18, 1931 (Figure 5), published in the Reading Times (Reading, PA) became the just the 2nd citation of the word cycle praising a batter’s arsenal of the 4 hits.8


Figure 5: Headline and story in Reading Times, might 18, 1931

Herman had indeed “found his batting eye in a huge way.”9 The AP story go not use the whole phrase hit for the cycle, and the native cycle was only provided in the headline, however this is just the second time in ten year the four various hits were labeled in what we keep in mind today as a cycle. The July 25 files describing Herman’s prowess did not use the word cycle.

Although Herman was praised because that his baseball feat, no all players with the same success received comparable accolades. During the next season, on June 3, 1932, Tony Lazzeri of the brand-new York Yankees hit a single, double, triple, and also home run (as well as another single before the residence run, and also the homer was through the bases loaded) versus the Philadelphia Athletics, in a 20-13 shoot-out new York win. Lazzeri’s rarely feat had almost no cite to be uncovered in print, as it arisen in the same game where teammate Lou Gehrig bound a document by belting 4 home runs. There was no point out of a cycle.10 (Curiously, Gehrig didn’t earn much press either, as an ext than half of the New York Times’ sports section’s front page was committed to Giants’ manager man McGraw announcing his retirement.)

A month after that July 22, 1932, Mickey Cochrane that the Philadelphia Athletics built up the four important hits versus Washington. To run an AP story that the game (Figure 6), the Great drops Tribune (Great Falls, MT) offered the complying with headline: “Mickey Cochrane Gets four Hits of different Lengths and Is Game’s Star.”11


Figure 6: headline in Great drops Tribune, July 23, 1932

The Tennessean (Nashville, TN) ran the same AP story under a different headline (see figure 7): “Cochrane hits a ‘Circle’ as A’s crush Senators.”12


Figure 7: headline in The Tennessean, July 23, 1932

The AP story began with, “Running the basic hit gamut, Mickey Cochrane led the Philadelphia Athletics to simple 8 to 4 victory today over Washington. The Philadelphia catcher hammered a single, double, triple and also home run.”13 notification how the two documents used circle and also hits of various lengths to attach the form of hit with the variety of total bases for the hit. Further, the story’s usage of gamut gave the reader the impression that Cochrane had actually made every sort of fight possible.

A record eight various major-league batters hit because that the bicycle in 1933.14 The first five (the St. Louis Cardinals’ Pepper young name on may 5 against the Philadelphia Phillies, the Phillies’ lining Klein on might 26 versus St. Louis, the Pittsburgh Pirates’ Arky Vaughan ~ above June 24 against the Brooklyn Dodgers, the Philadelphia olympic Mickey Cochrane on respectable 2 against the brand-new York Yankees, and also the athletics’ Pinky Higgins on respectable 6 against the Washington Nationals, colloquially recognized as the Senators) got praise for their plenty of hits, however no mention of a cycle showed up in newspaper print. Then came Foxx and also Averill.

Foxx’s rarely feat took place on august 14, 1933, however the citation from The Washington Post go not show up in print until September 27. The job after Foxx’s accomplishment against the Cleveland Indians, the Reading Times revitalized the term and also printed the following headline in their account the the A’s–Indians game (see number 8): “Foxx Wallops cycle to journey In ripe Runs as A’s victory 11-5.”15


Figure 8: headline in Reading Times, respectable 15, 1933

The indigenous cycle again appears only in the headline and not in the story.

The use of words cycle continued as soon as two days after this headline, on respectable 17, 1933, Cleveland’s Earl Averill likewise hit a single, double, triple, and home run in a game against Foxx’s Athletics. On august 18, four different newspapers supplied cycle in their accounts of that game. “Earl Averill achieved a cycle the hits when he birched the round for a single, double, triple and also home operation to peak the win forces.”16 The writer of this article for the Philadelphia Inquirer, James C. Isaminger, was additionally the editor that the Reach official American league Guide, however his travel guide did not usage the ax hitting because that the cycle until after the reach Guide linked with the Spalding guide in the mid-1930s. The News-Journal (Mansfield, OH) posted the headline, “Averill Hits because that Cycle: Pounds Out house Run, Triple, Double, and single to lead Indians to success Over Athletics, 15 to 4” as part of a United push (UP) story.17 and also in the Des Moines Register, “Averill’s stickwork completed the cycle, a single, a double, a triple and also a residence run.”18 Finally, The Sporting News reported, “Earl Averill, Cleveland, completes cycle in hitting single, double, triple and also home run.”19

The final cycle of the 1933 season was hit by the Chicago Cubs’ Babe Herman ~ above September 30 against St. Louis. The following day, fans review (although not in the Chicago Tribune) that “Babe Herman go a huge day’s occupational to assist the Cubs in their drive under the stretch. He contributed a cycle the safeties, a single, double, triple and also home run, and also blasted four runs across the plate.”20 Herman became the third batter to ever before hit for the cycle 3 times, and also he is the only one of the three whose heroics were defined with words cycle. Come date, Babe Herman is one of 4 players that have hit because that the cycle three times in their careers. The others are John Reilly, Bob Meusel, and also Adrian Beltre.

In early on 1934, The Sporting News provided highlights the the 1933 season stating, “The hitting because that a cycle (single, double, triple and also home run) by 4 American organization players, Foxx, Cochrane, Averill and Higgins.”21 There was no comparable column in this worry for the national League.

Although the brand was getting recognition, it did take it a few seasons till hit for the cycle was usually used. In 1934, Doc Cramer that the Philadelphia Athletics hit for the cycle versus the brand-new York Yankees ~ above June 10. James C. Isaminger wrote in the Philadelphia Inquirer, “Moreover, the Jersey male made what is known in baseball as a cycle of hits. He hit a single, double, triple, and a house run, every one together clean together a shirt from the laundry.”22 Isaminger clues that this phrase had actually now end up being somewhat commonplace. Later on in the same season, Lou Gehrig (New York Yankees, June 25) and Moose Solters (Boston Red Sox, august 19) both hit for the cycle however the documents did not mention the indigenous cycle.

Black’s yearly Baseball Schedule and Sport details was advertised in The Sporting News, ~ above April 18, 1935, v “Hit for a Cycle” as part of the contents.23 over there is no point out of the cycle incident in black 1934 guide.


Figure 9: advertisement in The Sporting News, April 18, 1935

Various descriptions were still employed for the next few years. ~ above June 29, 1935, Ducky Medwick the the St. Luigi Cardinals hit because that the cycle against the Cincinnati Reds. J. Roy Stockton of the St. Louis Post-Dispatch wrote, “Medwick gets cycle of hits. Joe Medwick, who has actually done lot to save the Cardinals as high together they are, hit a cycle of safeties, a single, double, triple, and home run, driving in 3 of the St. Louis tallies.”24

The following season, the sole occurrence belonged to brand-new York Giants’ Sam Leslie, who did so versus the Philadelphia Phillies on may 24, 1936. The Pittsburgh Post-Gazette printed the complying with as a description: “Leslie vied through his American organization contemporaries through getting five hits out of 5 times in ~ bat, including the complete album of hits, a homer, a triple, a double, and also two singles.”25

It shows up as if the phrase had become an ext widely supplied by 1937. As soon as Detroit’s Gee pedestrian cycled versus the Cleveland ind on opening Day, April 20, 1937, W.W. Edgar that the Detroit free Press penned, “Of course, obtained a many of assist from his sustaining cast, particularly ‘Gee’ Walker, the rebuilded Rebel, who hit because that the cycle v a home run, a triple, a two-base hit, and also a solitary for a perfect day in ~ the plate.”26

Yet 3 months later, a brand-new phrase was presented to explain the quartet the hits. The Daily Journal (Vineland, NJ) published the title “Yankees’ Slugger In Rare Feat” ~ Yankees sensation Joe DiMaggio hit for the bicycle on July 9, 1937. In the AP story, readers uncovered that “Joe DiMaggio collected a ‘grand slam,’ or every kind of basic hit, yesterday afternoon, together the new York Yankees drubbed Washington, 16-2, in the opener the a three-game series at Yankee Stadium.”27 This to be a unique way to characterize a cycle. As soon as DiMaggio’s teammate Lou Gehrig hit because that the bicycle on respectable 1, 1937, because that the second time in his career, the newspapers wrote the following: 

By 1938, it appears that the expression to describe this rare event was indeed commonplace. In The Sporting News, the adhering to were mentioned from 1938 come 1941:

This critical entry mirrors that even the players now knew the prestige of the phrase, hitting because that the cycle, also though Rosar’s cycle to be the 121st in major League history. Indigenous this time forward, it appears that each occasion of a batter getting the four hits was described as hitting for the cycle. Further, batters this particular day who achieved the rarely feat the hitting for the bike seem to be simply as excited as Rosar was.

In summary, The Dickson Baseball Dictionary is not inaccurate in declare the very first use the hit because that the cycle in the Washington Post article. The 1921 Tennessean need to be given credit for very first use, together it reported that Sisler “hit the cycle.” However, the expression “hitting for the cycle” came to be popular in the national media an ext than ten year later, in the early-to-mid 1930s.


Does the bespeak matter? while it may not appear that the bespeak of hits in a offered cycle is important, we sell the following statistical approach simply as a matter of interest. On respectable 14, 2015, Matt Kemp ended up being the first player because that the mountain Diego Padres come hit for the cycle. Until that contest, there had been 7,444 games without a Padres batter hitting because that the cycle.37 after the game, Kemp called reporters, “Anytime you make history, it’s special. Not everybody go that, I’m just glad I got the chance to execute it. I’ve come near plenty the times. I’ve just never acquired that one hit I absolutely needed. That triple is the hardest one to get.”38 other ballplayers have declared this sentiment, too. Deserve to we quantify which of the 4 hits is the hardest?

Of the 319 main instances that a batter hitting because that the cycle, we have uncovered the sequences of 265 of them by sifting v newspaper accounts and box scores. Over there are four factorial (4! = 24) methods to hit for the cycle. That the known sequences (83.1% of the total), the most common is the HR–2B–1B–3B, v 18 occurrences. Number 10 below shows each various sequence and the total number of times the has emerged (in 265, not 319, events).


Figure 10: Frequency of cycles by sequence (of 265 recognized sequences)

Close behind the most regular sequence space the 2B–HR–1B–3B sequence and also HR–3B–1B–2B with 16 cases each, adhered to by the 1B–2B–3B–HR (the natural cycle) through 15 occurrences. The sequence with the fewest counts is the 2B–3B–HR–1B (just four times).

We may never understand the sequence of all cycles, as newspaper account in the beforehand seasons were vague and also unfortunately, play-by-play data are not currently obtainable for virtually all games before the 1922 season. For example, we know that brand-new York Giants slugger Sam Leslie hit for the bike in a game versus the Philadelphia Phillies at the Polo Grounds on may 24, 1936, but the play-by-play data room not available. The box score reflects his various hits in the Giants’ victory yet not the bespeak of occurrence. We do however have every sequence for every cycle due to the fact that 1937, and also we room only absent two sequences since 1921.

Another way of the town hall the particular sequences of cycles is to discover how frequently each form of hit was attained first, second, third, and last. Number 11 perform the probabilities of each type of hit and also when in the bespeak it has actually occurred.

Order the Hit arisen in the Cycle

Type of Hit




















Home Run





Figure 11: Probabilities of kind of fight in the sequence

Figure 11 mirrors that the the hits that happen last in the cycle, triples take place most commonly at 31.32%. Virtually as constant is having the third hit it is in a solitary at 30.18%. The most infrequent incident is having actually the last hit of the cycle be a single with 20.00%.

Fans regularly ask, “Which fight is the hardest come attain?” probably a similar but an ext quantifiable concern is, “Which hit has the greatest probability of being the 4th hit in the sequence?” We have actually seen in number 10 the of all known cycles, the triple occurs last most frequently, yet one might wonder if this was always the case or if this is a an ext recent trend. The following charts depict just how these probabilities have actually shifted end the seasons.


Figure 12: heat graph of the portion last struggle by baseball era

In number 12, the Dead sphere Era mirrors a remarkable spike in portion of triples being the critical hit, and also what appears to it is in a dramatic decrease into the Lively round Era. Through the minimal play-by-play information, there space only 5 known assignment in the Dead round Era, two of which to be completed by Fred Clarke (of the Pittsburgh Pirates) and in both that his cycles, he hit the triple last.

Another noticeable trend watched in figure 12 is a steady increase in the portion of last hits that space triples since the Lively ball Era; in particular, one more relatively huge spike in the cost-free Agency Era. Through the lengthy Ball Era having actually the largest number of cycles and the totally free Agency Era having actually the 3rd largest variety of cycles, every one of which we have the full sequence in i beg your pardon the bicycle occurred, there appears to be a far-ranging trend.

We recognize that number 12 have the right to be busy, given that the data expectations over 140 seasons. Together the complimentary Agency Era begins in the so late 1970s, us zoom in ~ above the last five years in number 13. We can see the in all yet the 1990s, triples have been the last hit because that a larger proportion of the cycles than any other fight (in the 1990s there were eight cycles wherein the home run to be the last hit and also seven v the triple as the last hit). If the last of the 4 hits is perceived by the batter and fans together the “hardest,” then number 13 appears to loan credibility that the triple can be the hardest struggle to gain in accomplishing a cycle.


Figure 13: heat graph depicting the portion of critical hit since 1970

If one were to present using probabilities that a certain type of fight (single, double, triple, or home run) is the hardest come attain, one would need to check out the frequency of every hits, and also the type of fight that emerged the the very least would arguably be the hardest come attain. By focusing on cycles, the probabilities us examine are conditional on the fact that we understand one that each type of fight occurred. Us no longer want come look for the hit that occurs infrequently, however rather explore the order in i m sorry the hits take it place. It can be suggested then the the hits that take place in the very first at-bats room perhaps much easier to obtain than access time that occur last in the sequence. Therefore, if a certain type of struggle occurs more often together the last hit in the sequence, it can be regarded as the hardest that the four types of hits.

Statistically speaking, the triple is the critical hit significantly an ext frequently than any kind of other struggle in the critical five years (p-value = 0.0002, χ2 = 19.45, degrees of freedom = 3). In various other words, if one assumes that all permutations the cycles are equally likely to occur over the critical 50 years, the probability one would watch the same percentage of triples being hit critical as presented in figure 13 is 0.0002 (or 0.02%). In both the 1980s and also 2010s there have actually been double as countless triples as the last hit than house runs, the next most frequent last hit. In the 2000s, the frequency of triples as the critical hit to complete the bike were almost twice the of singles. For the hits to have actually the very same level the difficulty, the fads would hover around 25% for each. We deserve to see in figure 13 the the portion of triples gift hit last has been far over 25% because that the last several decades. There have actually been 40 instances of a batter hitting because that the bike in the critical ten periods (2008–17). In half of those (20 times), the batter struggle the triple last.

We deserve to conclude that, because that the last close-to-50 years, triples room most most likely to it is in the final hit i m sorry completes the cycle. Our research has actually studied simply the 4 hits, no taking into account the variety of at-bats (how regularly has it to be only 4 at-bats?) or the number of hits (some batters have actually had an ext than four hits in accomplishing the cycle). In those instances, we do not include extra hits of the same number of bases yet only taped which form of hit was first, second, third, or last.


Although the expression “cycle” is popular to describe the rarely feat of acquiring one the each type of hit in a solitary game, it took practically five years for the term come stick and become famous in the national newspaper media. It has actually been presented that the an initial use of the word “cycle” developed in 1921, penned for the achievement of George Sisler, the 70th cycle to have developed in baseball history at that time, through the 2nd occurrence that the word/phrase practically one te later. It wasn’t till after the explosion of cycles in the Lively round Era that the term discovered a permanent location in baseball vernacular.

Furthermore, it was shown that no all permutations of cycles are equally most likely to occur. In the last five decades, once the sheer number of cycles developing showed a dramatic increase, the triple is the last hit to obtain significantly much more often than any type of other hit.

The data listing all cycles and their known sequence of hits are listed as an virtual appendix in ~

MICHAEL HUBER, a Professor of math at Muhlenberg College, join in 1996. Dr. Huber’s research study interests encompass studying rare occasions in baseball, such as hitting for the cycle and pitching a no-hitter. He frequently sponsors undergraduate research entailing simulations using baseball data.

ALLISON DAVIDSON is an Assistant Professor of mathematics at Muhlenberg College. Dr. Davidson’s study interests include used statistics and also probability and also statistics education. Recent applications include neurological reception in the vision that flies, what provides a well-known tweet, and the influence of food rubbish on college campuses.


1 There space two inequalities with the Retrosheet list. First, Retrosheet list Philadelphia Athletics player George Hall together having completed the very first cycle (June 14, 1876). For a description of that game, check out Mike Huber, “June 14, 1876: George room gets 5 hits, yet is the a cycle?”, November 2017. various newspapers have actually varying accounts regarding the species of hits completed by room in the game. We perform not encompass Hall’s game as an official cycle. Second, Retrosheet has not yet included a cycle hit by Chicago White Sox player Jose Abreu (September 9, 2017). Therefore, we usage 319 as the official variety of cycles.

2 as of the finish of the 2017 continual season, according to See

3 for a summary of that game, view Mike Huber, “May 25, 1882: Buffalo’s Curry Foley completes very first cycle in major leagues through grand slam,” posted digital at, September 2015.

4 “NetShrine Baseball Timeline,” uncovered online at Accessed respectable 2017.

5 Paul Dickson, The Dickson Baseball Dictionary, third Edition, new York: W.W. Norton & agency (2009), edited by Skip McAfee, under the heading “hit for the cycle” (page 416).

6 Cecilia Tan that the society for American Baseball research posted this Washington Post quotation top top the listserv ~ above November 17, 2003.

7 “High lamp of Mace and Mound In 2 Leagues critical Week,” Tennessean (Nashville, Tennessee), respectable 21, 1921: 12. This info was reported in Herm Krabbenhoft’s article, “Quasi-Cycles: much better Than Cycles?”, Baseball study Journal, fall 2017.

8 “Herman access time Cycle together Robins Slam Reds, 14-4,” Reading Times (Reading, PA), may 19, 1931: 15.

9 Ibid.

10 for a summary of that game, see Mike Huber, “June 3, 1932: Lou Gehrig hits four home runs, Tony Lazzeri hits because that cycle in Yankees romp,” posted digital at, July 2015.

11 title in Great falls Tribune (Great Falls, Montana), July 23, 1932: 8.

12 title in Tennessean (Nashville, Tennessee), July 23, 1932: 8.

13 associated Press short article in Great falls Tribune (Great Falls, Montana), July 23, 1932: 8 and also The Tennessean (Nashville, Tennessee), July 23, 1932: 8.

14 This record was bound in 2009 when eight batters hit for the cycle. No season has actually had much more than eight cycles.

15 analysis Times (Reading, PA), august 15, 1933: 10.

16 James C. Isaminger, “Averill leader Tribal Spurt come Batter A’s,” Philadelphia Inquirer, respectable 18, 1933: 13.

17 headline in News-Journal (Mansfield, Ohio), respectable 18, 1933: 12.

18 “Indians Wallop Athletics, 15 come 4,” Des Moines Register, respectable 18, 1933: 8.

19 The Sporting News, January 4, 1934: 6.

20 J. Roy Stockton, “Dean registers 202d Strikeout; Babe Herman Shines at Bat,” St. Luigi Post-Dispatch, October 1, 1933: 18.

21 Henry P. Edwards, “High point out of 1933 in American League,” The Sporting News, January 11, 1934: 2.

22 James C. Isaminger, “Gehrig’s 15th end Mack hope in very first and Yankees Romp,” Philadelphia Inquirer, June 11, 1934: 14.

23 The Sporting News, April 18, 1935: 5.

24 J. Roy Stockton, “Medwick Hits home Run, Triple, Double, and Single,” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, June 30, 1935: 17.

25 “They go Wild through Bats in big Hitting Day,” Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, may 25, 1936: 14.

26 W. W. Edgar, “38,200 check out Tigers to win Indians, 4-3, in Season Opener,” Detroit totally free Press, April 21, 1937: 1.

27 Daniel M. Daniel, “N.Y. Call DiMaggio ‘Right-Handed Ruth,’” The Sporting News, July 15, 1937: 2.

28 “Gehrig Hits for Cycle, if DiMaggio and Rolfe cracked Homers–Score Is 14-5,” AP story uncovered in Cincinnati Enquirer, august 2, 1937: 10.

29 Leslie Avery, “DiMaggio Destined to come to be One of Game’s greatest Players,” Lincoln night Journal (Lincoln, Nebraska), respectable 2, 1937: 9.

30 “Gehrig Leads assault With ‘Cycle’ Hits,” AP story uncovered in Arizona Republic, august 2, 1937: 8.

31 The Sporting News, September 29, 1938: 4.

32 The Sporting News, may 11, 1939: 3.

33 The Sporting News, July 18, 1940: 2.

34 The Sporting News, July 25, 1940: 1.

35 The Sporting News, respectable 8, 1940: 2.

36 The Sporting News, January 2, 1941: 3.

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37 Corey Brock, “Kemp completes very first cycle in Padres history,”, august 15, 2015. Discovered online at