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StatPearls . Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021 Jan-.



The brain consists of the cerebrum, cerebellum, and also brainstem. Taking up the majority of the brain space is the cerebrum. The cerebrum controls somatosensory, motor, language, cognitive thought, memory, emotions, hearing, and vision. The cerebrum is divided into the left and also right hemispheres by a deep longitudinal fissure; the 2 hemispheres remain in contact and communication with one an additional by the corpus callosum. Each hemisphere further subdivides into a frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal lobe. Each lobe carries out various functions.

Structure and Function

The surface ar of the cerebrum is well-known as the cortex. It is around two-millimeter-thick and has plenty of folds developing ridges (gyri) and also grooves (sulci). A fissure is a depth grove and is regularly used interchangeably v sulcus. The cerebrum is split into a left and right hemisphere through a longitudinal fissure that goes by plenty of different names: longitudinal fissure, cerebral fissure, typical longitudinal fissure, interhemispheric fissure. Each cerebral hemisphere divides into four separate lobes through a main sulcus, parieto-occipital sulcus, and lateral fissure. The central sulcus runs posterior-medial to anterior-lateral and also separates the frontal lobe native the parietal lobe. The parieto-occipital sulcus off the parietal lobe native the occipital lobe. The lateral fissure (Sylvian fissure) is a laterally located horizontal fissure and also separates the temporal lobe native the frontal and parietal lobe.   

Frontal Lobe

The frontal lobe is anterior to the central sulcus and also superior come the lateral fissure. The frontal lobe further divides right into a superior, middle, and also inferior frontal gyrus, primary motor cortex, and also orbital area. These locations combine to controls our executive and motor functions. That controls judgment, problem-solving, planning, behavior, personality, speech, writing, speaking, concentration, self-awareness, and intelligence. The major motor cortex is present in the precentral gyrus the the frontal lobe and is positioned automatically anterior to the central sulcus. The premotor cortex is anterior to the primary motor cortex. This area controls the contralateral body and extremity movement. The medial region controls the lower extremity. The superior-lateral an ar controls the top extremity and hand. The lateral an ar controls the face. Certain body components are much more richly innervated for this reason does no proportionally stand for the human body. In fact, the majority of the main motor cortex is offered to finely control the muscle that the hands, face, and also lips, which is well represented by the homunculus model. Within the middle frontal gyrus is the frontal eye ar area and is mainly responsible for the contralateral eye abduction and also ipsilateral eye adduction. Broca"s area is responsible for speech and is not current in both hemispheres. Instead, that is within the worse frontal gyrus of the leading hemisphere. The dominant hemisphere, in many individuals, is the left hemisphere. Therefore, Broca"s area is most usual in the left inferior frontal gyrus.<1>  

Parietal Lobe

The parietal lobe is posterior to the central sulcus and also anterior come the parieto-occipital sulcus. This lobe controls perception and also sensation. The major somatosensory cortex is in the postcentral gyrus and is positioned automatically posterior come the central sulcus. The primary somatosensory cortex controls the sense of touch, temperature, and pain of the contralateral body. Mirroring the primary motor cortex, the medial an ar senses the lower extremity, superior-lateral an ar sense the top extremity and also hand, and the lateral an ar senses the face. Similar to the major motor area, the hands, face, and lips take up the bulk of the somatosensory area and are additionally well presented by the homunculus model. Damage to the parietal lobe can existing with a lack of this sensations as well as other symptoms depending upon whether the dominant or nondominant hemisphere is furthermore damage. Damage to the leading parietal lobe, typically the left hemisphere, present with agraphia, acalculia, finger agnosia, and left-right disorientation. The presentation of these symptoms is characteristic the Gerstmann Syndrome.<2> Damage to the nondominant parietal lobe, generally the appropriate hemisphere, present with agnosia the the contralateral next of the human being - this is also called hemispatial ignore syndrome.  

Occipital Lobe

The occipital lobe is posterior come the parieto-occipital sulcus and also superior come the tentorium cerebelli. This lobe interprets vision, distance, depth, color, and facial recognition. The occipital lobe receives its info from the contralateral vision field of both eye (i.e., the left occipital lobe receives and also interprets details from the right visual field from both the left and right eye).<3> 

Temporal Lobe

The temporal lobe is worse to the lateral fissure and further divides right into a superior, middle, and also inferior temporal gyrus. This lobe controls language comprehension, hearing, and also memory. Wernicke"s area is responsible for language comprehension, and also it not uncovered in both hemispheres. Similar to Broca"s area, Wernicke"s area is in the remarkable temporal gyrus that the dominant hemisphere, i m sorry is commonly the left hemisphere. Therefore, the location of Wernicke"s area is most commonly in the superior temporal gyrus. The primary auditory cortex is in the remarkable temporal gyrus and also processes most auditory info from the contralateral ear and some from the ipsilateral ear. The temporal lobe communicates with the hippocampus and amygdala to form memories.

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Nerves that travel to and from the mind consist that dendrites, a cell body, axon, and axon terminal. Grey matter is frequently used interchangeably through the cortex. However, the grey issue implies the axons that room not myelinated appear grey. Grey matter deserve to be found in deep structures, together well. Below the cortex sit white matter, which indicates that axons room myelinated and also appear white. White matter receives and send signals to and from the mind and permits for communication in between different part of the brain quickly as result of their myelinated axons. The grey issue of the cortex interprets signals received from various parts of the body and then sends out a an answer signal.