Identify the anatomical attributes of a boneDefine and also list instances of bone markingsDescribe the histology the bone tissueCompare and contrast compact and spongy boneIdentify the structures that create compact and spongy boneDescribe just how bones are nourished and also innervated

Bone organization (osseous tissue) differs considerably from various other tissues in the body. Bone is hard and also many the its features depend on that characteristic hardness. Later discussions in this chapter will present that bone is also dynamic in the its shape adjusts to accommodate stresses. This section will examine the gross anatomy of bone very first and then relocate on come its histology.

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Gross Anatomy of Bone

The framework of a long bone permits for the ideal visualization of all of the parts of a bone ((Figure)). A lengthy bone has two parts: the diaphysis and also the epiphysis. The diaphysis is the tubular tower that runs between the proximal and distal end of the bone. The hollow region in the diaphysis is called the medullary cavity, which is filled with yellow marrow. The wall surfaces of the diaphysis room composed that dense and also hard compact bone.



Flat bones, like those of the cranium, consist of a class of diploë (spongy bone), lined on either side by a layer of compact bone ((Figure)). The two layers of compact bone and also the interior spongy bone work-related together to defend the interior organs. If the external layer that a cranial bone fractures, the brain is still safeguarded by the undamaged inner layer.


This cross-section that a flat bone shows the spongy bone (diploë) lined on either next by a great of compact bone.


Bone Cells and Tissue

Bone consists of a relatively small number of cells entrenched in a matrix of collagen fibers that carry out a surface ar for inorganic salt crystals come adhere. These salt crystals type when calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate integrate to produce hydroxyapatite, i m sorry incorporates other not natural salts prefer magnesium hydroxide, fluoride, and sulfate as it crystallizes, or calcifies, ~ above the collagen fibers. The hydroxyapatite crystals give bones your hardness and also strength, when the collagen fibers offer them flexibility so that they space not brittle.

Although bone cells write a little amount the the bone volume, they are an essential to the role of bones. Four species of cells are uncovered within bone tissue: osteoblasts, osteocytes, osteogenic cells, and osteoclasts ((Figure)).


Four types of cells are discovered within bone tissue. Osteogenic cells are undifferentiated and develop into osteoblasts. Once osteoblasts get trapped within the calcified matrix, their framework and duty changes, and they come to be osteocytes. Osteoclasts develop from monocytes and macrophages and also differ in figure from other bone cells.


The osteoblast is the bone cell responsible for forming new bone and is discovered in the cultivation portions the bone, including the periosteum and endosteum. Osteoblasts, which execute not divide, synthesize and secrete the collagen matrix and also calcium salts. As the secreted matrix bordering the osteoblast calcifies, the osteoblast become trapped in ~ it; as a result, it changes in structure and also becomes one osteocyte, the main cell of maturation bone and the many common form of bone cell. Every osteocyte is located in a an are called a lacuna and is surrounded by bone tissue. Osteocytes keep the mineral concentration the the procession via the cheap of enzymes. Like osteoblasts, osteocytes lack mitotic activity. Castle can interact with every other and receive nutrient via lengthy cytoplasmic procedures that expand through canaliculi (singular = canaliculus), channels within the bone matrix.

If osteoblasts and osteocytes space incapable the mitosis, then exactly how are lock replenished when old ones die? The price lies in the nature of a 3rd category that bone cells—the osteogenic cell. This osteogenic cells are undifferentiated with high mitotic activity and they space the only bone cells that divide. Immature osteogenic cell are found in the deep class of the periosteum and the marrow. They differentiate and develop right into osteoblasts.

The dynamic nature that bone way that brand-new tissue is constantly formed, and old, injured, or unnecessary bone is dissolved for repair or for calcium release. The cell responsible for bone resorption, or breakdown, is the osteoclast. Lock are found on bone surfaces, space multinucleated, and originate indigenous monocytes and macrophages, two varieties of white blood cells, no from osteogenic cells. Osteoclasts are continually breaking under old bone while osteoblasts are continually forming new bone. The continuous balance in between osteoblasts and also osteoclasts is responsible for the consistent but ethereal reshaping that bone. (Figure) evaluate the bone cells, your functions, and locations.

Bone CellsCell typeFunctionLocation
Osteogenic cellsDevelop right into osteoblastsDeep layers of the periosteum and the marrow
OsteoblastsBone formationGrowing portions of bone, including periosteum and also endosteum
OsteocytesMaintain mineral concentration the matrixEntrapped in matrix
OsteoclastsBone resorptionBone surfaces and at web page of old, injured, or unneeded bone

Compact and also Spongy Bone

The differences between compact and spongy bone are best explored via your histology. Most bones save compact and also spongy osseous tissue, however their distribution and concentration vary based on the bone’s in its entirety function. Compact bone is dense so the it deserve to withstand compressive forces, if spongy (cancellous) bone has open spaces and also supports move in weight distribution.


Compact Bone

Compact bone is the denser, stronger of the two species of bone organization ((Figure)). It can be found under the periosteum and in the diaphyses of lengthy bones, where it gives support and also protection.


The microscopic structure unit of compact bone is dubbed an osteon, or Haversian system. Each osteon is written of concentric ring of calcified matrix referred to as lamellae (singular = lamella). Running down the facility of each osteon is the main canal, or Haversian canal, which has blood vessels, nerves, and also lymphatic vessels. These vessels and nerves branch off at appropriate angles v a perforating canal, also known together Volkmann’s canals, to prolong to the periosteum and endosteum.

The osteocytes are situated inside spaces referred to as lacunae (singular = lacuna), uncovered at the borders of surrounding lamellae. As described earlier, canaliculi attach with the canaliculi of various other lacunae and also eventually with the main canal. This system permits nutrients to it is in transported to the osteocytes and wastes come be gotten rid of from them.


Spongy (Cancellous) Bone

Like compact bone, spongy bone, likewise known as cancellous bone, includes osteocytes housed in lacunae, but they room not arranged in concentric circles. Instead, the lacunae and osteocytes are discovered in a lattice-like network of procession spikes referred to as trabeculae (singular = trabecula) ((Figure)). The trabeculae may show up to be a arbitrarily network, but each trabecula forms along lines of stress and anxiety to administer strength to the bone. The spaces that the trabeculated network administer balance come the dense and also heavy compact bone through making skeleton lighter so that muscles have the right to move them an ext easily. In addition, the spaces in some spongy skeletal contain red marrow, safeguarded by the trabeculae, wherein hematopoiesis occurs.


Spongy bone is composed of trabeculae the contain the osteocytes. Red marrow fills the spaces in part bones.
Skeletal System: Paget’s disease Paget’s disease usually wake up in adults over age 40. The is a disorder that the bone remodeling procedure that begins with overactive osteoclasts. This means more bone is resorbed 보다 is laid down. The osteoblasts shot to compensate but the new bone castle lay under is weak and brittle and therefore susceptible to fracture.

While some human being with Paget’s condition have no symptoms, others experience pain, bone fractures, and bone deformities ((Figure)). Bones of the pelvis, skull, spine, and legs room the most typically affected. When developing in the skull, Paget’s an illness can reason headaches and hearing loss.


Normal leg bones are relatively straight, but those influenced by Paget’s an illness are porous and also curved.
What causes the osteoclasts to become overactive? The prize is quiet unknown, however hereditary factors seem to play a role. Part scientists think Paget’s an illness is due to an as-yet-unidentified virus.

Paget’s an illness is diagnosed via imaging studies and also lab tests. X-rays may show bone deformities or locations of bone resorption. Bone scans are likewise useful. In this studies, a dye containing a radioactive ion is injected into the body. Locations of bone resorption have an affinity because that the ion, for this reason they will light up on the scan if the ions space absorbed. In addition, blood level of one enzyme dubbed alkaline phosphatase are generally elevated in human being with Paget’s disease.

Bisphosphonates, drugs the decrease the activity of osteoclasts, are frequently used in the therapy of Paget’s disease. However, in a tiny percentage the cases, bisphosphonates themselves have actually been linked to an increased risk of fractures because the old bone that is left after bisphosphonates room administered becomes worn out and also brittle. Still, most doctors feel that the benefits of bisphosphonates much more than outweigh the risk; the medical experienced has to sweet the benefits and also risks ~ above a case-by-case basis. Bisphosphonate treatment have the right to reduce the as whole risk of deformities or fractures, which consequently reduces the hazard of operation repair and its associated risks and also complications.


Blood and Nerve Supply

The spongy bone and medullary cavity get nourishment native arteries the pass through the compact bone. The arteries enter through the nutrient foramen (plural = foramina), tiny openings in the diaphysis ((Figure)). The osteocytes in spongy bone space nourished by blood vessels of the periosteum that permeate spongy bone and also blood the circulates in the marrow cavities. As the blood passes through the marrow cavities, that is built up by veins, which then pass out of the bone v the foramina.

In enhancement to the blood vessels, nerves monitor the exact same paths into the bone wherein they have tendency to concentration in the much more metabolically energetic regions that the bone. The nerves feeling pain, and also it shows up the nerves also play functions in regulating blood supplies and in bone growth, hence their concentration in metabolically energetic sites that the bone.


Diagram of Blood and Nerve it is provided to Bone
Blood vessels and also nerves go into the bone through the nutrient foramen.
Watch this video to see the microscopic attributes of a bone.


Chapter Review

A hole medullary cavity filled with yellow marrow operation the length of the diaphysis of a long bone. The wall surfaces of the diaphysis room compact bone. The epiphyses, which are more comprehensive sections in ~ each end of a lengthy bone, space filled through spongy bone and red marrow. The epiphyseal plate, a layer of hyaline cartilage, is changed by osseous organization as the body organ grows in length. The medullary cavity has a vulnerable membranous lining referred to as the endosteum. The outer surface the bone, other than in regions covered with articular cartilage, is covered with a fibrous membrane dubbed the periosteum. Level bones consist of of two layers that compact bone surrounding a class of spongy bone. Bone markings depend on the function and place of bones. Articulations are locations where two bones meet. Projections stick the end from the surface ar of the bone and administer attachment points for tendons and also ligaments. Holes are openings or depressions in the bones.

Bone matrix is composed of collagen fibers and also organic ground substance, mostly hydroxyapatite created from calcium salts. Osteogenic cells build into osteoblasts. Osteoblasts room cells that make brand-new bone. They come to be osteocytes, the cells of maturation bone, as soon as they obtain trapped in the matrix. Osteoclasts connect in bone resorption. Compact bone is dense and also composed the osteons, while spongy bone is much less dense and made increase of trabeculae. Blood vessels and also nerves enter the bone through the nutrient foramina come nourish and innervate bones.


Which of the adhering to occurs in the spongy bone of the epiphysis?

bone growthbone remodelinghematopoiesisshock absorption

C


The diaphysis includes ________.

the metaphysisfat storesspongy bonecompact bone

B


The fibrous membrane spanning the external surface that the bone is the ________.

periosteumepiphysisendosteumdiaphysis

Which that the adhering to are i can not qualify of experience mitosis?

osteoblasts and also osteoclastsosteocytes and osteoclastsosteoblasts and also osteocytesosteogenic cells and also osteoclasts

Which cells do not originate from osteogenic cells?

osteoblastsosteoclastsosteocytesosteoprogenitor cells

Which that the following are uncovered in compact bone and also cancellous bone?

Haversian systemsHaversian canalslamellaelacunae

Which that the complying with are only discovered in cancellous bone?

canaliculiVolkmann’s canalstrabeculaecalcium salts

The area of a bone wherein the nutrient foramen passes forms what kind of bone marking?

a holea faceta canala fissure

If the articular cartilage in ~ the finish of among your long bones to be to degenerate, what symptoms carry out you think you would certainly experience? Why?


If the articular cartilage at the end of among your lengthy bones were to deteriorate, i m sorry is in reality what wake up in osteoarthritis, friend would experience joint pain at the finish of the bone and limitation of movement at that joint because there would certainly be no cartilage to alleviate friction between nearby bones and also there would certainly be no cartilage to act as a shock absorber.

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In what methods is the structural makeup that compact and spongy bone fine suited to their particular functions?


The densely pack concentric rings of procession in compact bone are ideal for resisting compressive forces, i m sorry is the role of compact bone. The open spaces of the trabeculated network the spongy bone enable spongy bone to support shifts in load distribution, i beg your pardon is the duty of spongy bone.


Glossary

articular cartilagethin class of cartilage extending an epiphysis; reduces friction and also acts as a shock absorberarticulationwhere two bone surfaces meetcanaliculi(singular = canaliculus) channels within the bone procession that residence one of an osteocyte’s many cytoplasmic extensions that it supplies to communicate and also receive nutrientscentral canallongitudinal channel in the center of each osteon; includes blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatic vessels; also known as the Haversian canalcompact bonedense osseous organization that deserve to withstand compressive forcesdiaphysistubular tower that runs in between the proximal and also distal end of a lengthy bonediploëlayer that spongy bone, the is sandwiched between two the great of compact bone discovered in level bonesendosteumdelicate membranous lining of a bone’s medullary cavityepiphyseal plate(also, expansion plate) paper of hyaline cartilage in the metaphysis of an immature bone; changed by bone tissue as the organ grows in lengthepiphysiswide ar at each finish of a long bone; filled with spongy bone and also red marrowholeopening or depression in a bonelacunae(singular = lacuna) spaces in a bone that house an osteocytemedullary cavityhollow region of the diaphysis; filled with yellow marrownutrient foramensmall opened in the center of the external surface that the diaphysis, v which an artery start the bone to carry out nourishmentosteoblastcell responsible for forming new boneosteoclastcell responsible because that resorbing boneosteocyteprimary cell in tires bone; responsible for keeping the matrixosteogenic cellundifferentiated cell with high mitotic activity; the only bone cells the divide; lock differentiate and develop right into osteoblastsosteon(also, Haversian system) basic structural unit that compact bone; do of concentric class of calcified matrixperforating canal(also, Volkmann’s canal) channel the branches off from the central canal and also houses vessels and also nerves that expand to the periosteum and also endosteumperiosteumfibrous membrane spanning the outer surface of bone and continuous with ligamentsprojectionbone markings where part of the surface sticks out over the remainder of the surface, where tendons and ligaments attachspongy bone(also, cancellous bone) trabeculated osseous organization that supports shifts in load distributiontrabeculae(singular = trabecula) spikes or part of the lattice-like matrix in spongy bone