l>Natural resources in Antarctica
Natural resources in AntarcticaInstructional Module #3 PROJECT explore INSTRUCTIONAL MODULE #3 emphasis QUESTION: WHAT natural RESOURCES walk ANTARCTICA HAVE?............................................................................ Keith Randa Apple valley High institution Apple Valley, Minnesota plunder Lonning college of Minnesota Minneapolis, Minnesota background INFORMATIONAntarctica is the southern-most continent on the Earth and the continentthat we recognize the least around geologically. Two factors make it difficult tostudy the geology and mineral sources of Antarctica. One, the coldtemperatures and strong winds, together with the 24 hour duration of darknessduring the Antarctic winter, do it a very challenging place to work andcollect geology data. Two, much less than 3% of Antarctica is ice-free, whichmakes the research of geology of Antarctica very difficult. GEOLOGY and also PLATE TECTONICSWhat us know around the geology of Antarctica originates from studying the smallpercentage of the rocks that are exposed one of two people at the shore or the top ofmountain arrays which extend above the ice. Our understanding of thegeology the the Antarctic region is based upon the theory of bowl tectonics.Plate tectonics is the concept that the earth"s crust is comprised of a seriesof pieces. Each piece is dubbed a plate. This plates rise on height of thesemi-fluid mantle prefer rafts. The mantle is thought to have actually convectioncells within it which relocate these bowl around. Because of the concept ofplate tectonics, many geologists think that increase until about 180 millionyears ago, southern America, Africa, India, Australia, and brand-new Zealand were alljoined together in one very large mass dubbed Gondwana. One item ofevidence the supports the idea the this huge land mass is that all of thesecontinents to the right together choose a jigsaw puzzle. That has additionally been discovered thatwhen this continents are placed together lock share equivalent fossils, rocktypes, and also land features. The best explanation because that this similarity is thatthe rocks, fossils and land attributes formed when the continents to be joinedtogether.When Gondwana started to break up, the floor masses slowly moved right into thepositions that we check out them today. This idea the all the soil masses wereformed together enables us come make some assumptions about the geology ofAntarctica also though very small of the crust of Antarctica is exposed. ANTARCTICA MINERAL KNOWLEDGE and also ECONOMICSMuch that what us know about the geology of Antarctica and about the mineralspresent is based upon what us know around the geology of southern America, SouthAfrica, and Australia. Because that example, if minerals found in the rocks thatwere formed prior to the break up the Gondwana are found in the mountains ofSouth America, then us assume that us will uncover the exact same minerals in themountains the Antarctica. This is because we have the right to assume the they wereformed in ~ the exact same time and with the same an easy processes.Many people believe that Antarctica is a place of unlimited resource wealth.But the harsh climate, quick work season, and also thick ice do the restore ofthese resources an extremely difficult. The economic value the a resource isdetermined through the present market value of the resource, the price of movingthe source to wherein it is needed, and also the cost of moving equipment andworkers to recover the resource. The an innovation to remove and also transportmineral resources has actually not yet been occurred but as supplies worldwide aredepleted, it will certainly become much more cost effective.There are two opposing views around the feasibility of resource recovery inAntarctica. One side is that by the time it is feasible to use anAntarctica resource, alternative sources will exist. Instead of usingpetroleum for power there will certainly be breakthrough of fusion reactors, solar, orgeothermal energy. The various other view is that increasing financial pressure willforce mineral and also petroleum exploration into an ext and much more remote areas asresources are gradually depleted in various other lands. ANTARCTICA sources ICE:One the Antarctica"s most vital resources is ice. It is stated thatAntarctica"s ice cream accounts because that 90% of the civilizations fresh water. As a resourceit has actually potential together a fresh water supply. Some human being have consideredtowing icebergs from Antarctica to components of the human being in need of freshwater. At existing the delivery prices make these endeavors unprofitable.Another feasible use of the ice on Antarctica is together a long term deep freezestorage website for grain and also other foods. Again the prices of shipping andhandling are prohibitive. COAL:There space coal deposits uncovered along the coastline of Antarctica. It is alsovery vast spread throughout the Transantarctic Mountains. These depositswere formed between 35 million and 55 million years ago when Antarctica wascovered by old swamps. Coal forms in swamps as plants die and areburied prior to they have the right to be totally decomposed. They room then covered byother sediments such as sand and mud. This burial enables the hydrocarbonsin the charcoal to be kept for future generations come use.Coal is offered as a resource of straight heat and likewise to generate electricity incoal burning strength plants. The main problem of arising coal inAntarctica is that the cost of mining and delivering the charcoal is for this reason muchhigher than the cost of coal in the remainder of the civilization market. It may bepossible because that coal to be offered in some small research stations because that a source ofheat. PETROLEUM:Petroleum shop are formed when plants and small animal continues to be areburied in a marine setting by sand and mud. These continues to be then develop upas hydrocarbons and also are trapped through a layer of rock that the hydrocarbonscannot happen through. These lid rocks then save the petroleum undergrounduntil the is pumped out by wells. Right now there has been no petroleumexploration attempted and there room no known petroleum resources inAntarctica.Most of the speculation around petroleum in Antarctica originates from findingpetroleum top top the other Southern continents which were at once connectedtogether. The petroleum deposits assumed to be on the offshore areas ofAntarctica would probably be most feasible to obtain although castle wouldhave to it is in exceptionally big to be taken into consideration for exploitation due to the fact that ofthe following massive exploration and advancement problems: -Deeper water end the continental shelves; -The presence of sea ice and icebergs; -Short job-related season and also hostile climate.Comparisons with other Gondwana continents indicate the existence ofpetroleum to make reservation in the inner of Antarctica. However these lie below thethick ice, ruling out development. This is due not just to the thickness ofthe ice but likewise the reality that that is sliding gradually towards the coast. Thismakes drilling with the ice and into the rock really difficult. METALLIC MINERALS:Mineral resources have actually not been discovered in an excellent quantities so far as result of thesmall lot of rock that is exposed. It is believed that due to the fact that the othercontinents the were as soon as attached to Antarctica to kind Gondwana havemetallic and also nonmetallic minerals, the Antarctica probably has similarminerals. The is likewise known that rock class such together those in Antarcticacommonly contain big amounts that cobalt, chromium, nickel, vanadium,copper, iron and also platinum team minerals.The search for sizable concentrations of metallic minerals below the icewill be a complicated prospecting undertaking which will need costlygeophysical and geochemical surveying and core drilling. Geologists havefound tiny deposits of minerals in Antarctica however these deposits space low inquality and occur in extensively scattered places. The peninsula appears to havethe highest possible probability the containing financial base-metal deposits. Many ofthe minerals were created or deposited during the formation of Antarctica andthe other continents that comprised Gondwana.There are three basic procedure which could have developed these minerals: HYDROTHERMAL:When fluids such together water space heated through the earth"s interior, they can carrydissolved mineral in their fluid state such as quartz, gold, etc. As soon as thesolution that liquid and dissolved mineral cools in a brand-new environment, theminerals room deposited together a solid. (The same method that candy creates crystalsas that cools and also hardens.) MAGMATIC SEGREGATION:As fluid rock (magma) cools, the minerals in the separate. This is becausethe mineral have different densities and will different with the denserminerals towards the bottom. (Think of just how a party of Italian dressingseparates right into layers.) This the end the minerals into different layersresulting in concentration of mineral in various places together the magmacools and hardens. SEDIMENTATION:As the planet is worn down and broken into pieces by wind, water, ice cream andother weathering processes, the piece of the planet are brought by waterinto the seas where they are deposited in layers. Since the pieces aredifferent sizes and also have different solubilities in water, they clear up to thebottom and kind different layers. This results in concentration of theminerals separated into layers.Below is a table which perform the minerals found in Antarctica, exactly how they wereformed, and how they space used. MINERAL development USE steel Sedimentation stole making Cobalt Hydrothermal Petroleum refining, colours Chromium Magmatic heat & corrosion resistant stole segregation Nickel Magmatic Stainless steel, heat and segregation corrosion-resistant steel Copper Hydrothermal Alloys through tin (Bronze) and also Zinc Sedimentation electrical equipment(Brass) Platinum Magmatic Chemical and also metallurgic segregation industries, jewel Manganese Sedimentation steel making Uranium Hydrothermal atom fuel, underground water Explosives command Hydrothermal storage batteries, gasoline, building and construction TOURISMMany civilization feel that the scenic resources have the greatest potential fornear future financial development. Currently there room a variety of cruisesalong the coastal waters that Antarctica. The most famous areeducation/expedition cruises where stops room made at study stations andanimal communities along the coast. There are likewise a few government cruisesthat go to neighborhood research stations come visit and observe.Some airborne travel takes place, mostly over the peninsula, however there arethe problems of no international air traffic control, essentially nonavigational aids, and also blizzards through whiteouts. This problems and a fewcrashes, in which search and rescue have been difficult, have restricted thepleasure flights over Antarctica.There are additionally expeditions by people who check out Antarctica as the lastfrontier; one of the last locations that they can test themselves againstnature. In the past, expeditions with limited knowledge and experience inAntarctica have not come equipped for the conditions they experience. Ifproblems arise there is frequently no system set up because that rescue or resupply.Some visionaries see an every weather landing strip, v one or more hotelsnear by, and possibly a center for alpine skiing and mountaineering as thenext development in Antarctica tourism.There are plenty of problems with tourism in Antarctica. Over there is no localpopulace to benefit economically native it. Since the atmosphere is sofragile, tourism deserve to do a the majority of damage and there is no method to screen theimpact ~ above the environment. Lock have found that as result of the harshconditions, the tree that do live on Antarctica are easily damaged by thehuman traffic. Castle have additionally found that penguins" nesting is disturbed byhuman contact.There is likewise the trouble of waste disposal from those that currently live onAntarctica and from tourists. Travel interferes with research at thestations by demands for visits and by utilizing station"s resources to aid inrescue of expeditions. Over there are additionally no worldwide agreements for legaljurisdiction and also handling that civil and criminal instances that would arise asmore civilization visit Antarctica. The contract regulations recognize the appropriate oftourists come visit the area but do not attend to these problems. OBJECTIVES: process OBJECTIVES1-The college student will have the ability to describe Antarctica"s resources.2-The college student will be able to explain just how the sources are formed.3-The student will have the ability to discuss the troubles of economic recovery ofAntarctica resources. Content OBJECTIVES1-The students will be know that the geology and also mineral sources ofAntarctica are determined from minimal rock samples and inferences fromplate tectonics.2-The student will understand just how to advice the financial feasibility oftrying to recover Antarctica"s resources.3-The college student will understand that each of the adhering to is a resource ofAntarctica and also how each resource is formed. -Ice -Coal -Petroleum -Metallic minerals4-The student will understand the problems linked with the recovery ofthe following resources: -Ice -Coal -Petroleum -Metallic minerals5-The student will recognize that tourism is among Antarctica"s resources.6-The college student will recognize what varieties of travel takes place inAntarctica and also the problems associated with each. EQUIPMENT and MATERIALSPaper, composing Utensils, Library or Encyclopedia, construction paper,Scissors, color pencils, Rulers, Dictionary, sources from learning Link,Antarctica source puzzle sheet, glue or Tape. EXPLORATION/ PRIOR understanding ASSESSMENTThis is an activity designed to wake up student attention in the object andprovide an indication the students" prior understanding of the topic. Theinformation is essential for determining the beginning point and also level ofdifficulty because that instruction.As a an initial activity, have students answer the complying with questions:1-Draw a map the the planet showing north America and Antarctica. Ordescribe in words where Antarctica is contrasted to whereby you live.2-Describe what friend think Antarctica is like contrasted to wherein you live(weather, land, variety of people, activities).3-What is a natural resource?4-List three examples of organic resources that you have in your community.5-List 5 natural resources that you think Antarctica has.6-Explain how these resources from number 5 wherein formed?7-What room some provides of the herbal resources the you detailed in number 5? principle INVENTION ACTIVITYHere are couple of suggested methods to existing the background materials for thismodule.1-If you have actually an audio visual routine of Antarctica, show it come yourstudents for this reason they can acquire a picture of Antarctica in their minds.2-Have your students go to the library and look in books or magazines forpictures of Antarctica come share v the class. Have actually students bringpictures from house that they may have actually of Antarctica.3-Give a great and collection of notes on the resources of Antarctica usingthe background information for a reference.4-Have the students check out the background material and also answer the questionson the sources of Antarctica Worksheet.APPLICATION ACTIVITIESSelect one or an ext of these activities to administer students practiceapplying their new knowledge.1-Exploiting Antarctica"s Resources: Is There another Solution?In this task students pick among Antarctica"s resources and researchhow our society uses that resource. Lock then try to formulate a plan todevelop options to making use of that source or if options don"t existthey climate come up with ways to conserve that resource.2-Antarctica Resources group project:Groups the students research study a resource and report either in composing ororally come the class the complying with information. -How source is used. -How source is mined or recovered around the world. -Some ecological impacts that recovering that resource. -Design some possible methods of recovering that source in Antarctica. -Describe some possible environmental results of recovering the resourcein Antarctica. -Explain exactly how you room going to get rid of or minimize the Environmentalimpacts brought about by recovery.3-The Antarctica resource Puzzle.In this task students will piece together Gondwana and also see if they candetermine wherein the resources in Antarctica space located. This will be basedon the theory of key tectonics and make the presumption that all of theresources were formed before the big land mass broke up. APPLICATION activity #1 resources OF ANTARCTICA WORKSHEET NAME: PER: TEACHER:1-Where is Antarctica?2-What provides the geology and also the mineral sources of Antarctica sodifficult come determine?3-How execute the continent of south Africa, south America and also Australia helpus determine if there space minerals in Antarctica?4-If we found gold in the hills in southern America why deserve to we i think thatwe will find gold in the hills of Antarctica?5-What are organic resources?6-What factors are managing whether the is worth the money to recover theresources in Antarctica?7-What space the 2 opposing views as soon as it comes to whether it will be worththe effort and money to recoup the resources in Antarctica?8-Why is the search for sizable mineral concentration in Antarctica sodifficult?9-Explain the three basic procedure for the formation of metallic minerals.10-What are some methods that tourist can visit Antarctica?11-What room some problems connected with travel in Antarctica?Fill the end the table below giving the following information: -How sources is developed (Formation) -How the resource is supplied or can be used. (Use) -Problem of recovery of the resource? (Problems) source Formation Use problems Ice charcoal Petroleum stole Cobalt Chromium Nickel Copper Platinum Uranium lead Tourism APPLICATION activity #2 ANTARCTICA RESOURCES: an additional SOLUTION? PURPOSE:To have actually students uncover out just how our society would usage the potential resourcesfrom Antarctica and to come increase with options to utilizing those sources orways to maintain them.Background: Every day us consume organic resources. Indigenous the water wedrink, the food we eat, the clothing we wear, and all of the other objectsthat we find important to very own in our society. Due to the fact that of the use ofresources in our day-to-day lives we will, at some point, operation out the ourcurrent it is provided of resources. Thus many world view Antarctica asthe next ar to walk to achieve needed resources. In this task you willlook in ~ the resources that Antarctica is an alleged to have, and also look in ~ h-owthey would certainly be used by our society. You will then come up with alternativeresources or methods to conserve them so the we will certainly not have to useAntarctica"s resources. PROCEDURE:1-Your teacher will certainly assign girlfriend a resource from Antarctica. MY resource IS:2-Write a report around your source using the complying with outline. A-Name the the resource. B-How the source is formed. C-Estimate or uncover out just how long the takes to form the resource. D-Where go our culture currently obtain the source from? (i.e., coalfrom Montana.) list as many as possible. E-How does our culture use the resource. List as numerous as possible (i.e.,petroleum provided in cars, to do plastics). F- problems of recovering the source from Antarctica. G-Come increase with different resources to use to carry out the same thing. (i.e.paper plates rather of foam plates) or come up with ways to conserve onthe resource. (i.e., use metal washable utensils instead of plastic.) RESOURCES: BACKGROUND information FROM THIS MODULE: -Encyclopedias -Library publications -Atlases -Science Text books -Your teacher APPLICATION task #3 ANTARCTICA source GROUP project PURPOSE:To allow students to discover how resources are recovered approximately the worldand to apply that understanding to Antarctica. BACKGROUND:Mineral source recovery in Antarctica is various than that is in the restof the world since of the special conditions that exist in Antarctica.The an initial problem is that the amount of daylight in Antarctica is not thesame year round. In the summer they have actually 24 hours of daylight and also in thewinter they have actually 24 hrs of night.The weather also presents problems. Follow me the shore of Antarctica thetemperature arrays in winter indigenous 32 levels F. Come -40 degrees. Inland thetemperatures variety from -40 levels to listed below -100 levels . There room alsogreat winds which punch the snow into whiteout problems making seeing morethan a foot in prior of your confront a problem. The precipitation variesgreatly from less than 2 2 inches per year inland, to around 35 inches peryear along the coast. The ice likewise presents problems. The ice ofAntarctica is moving by the pressure of gravity downhill in the direction of the coast.It is usually a big continental glacier. Drilling a feet or digging amine tower is an overwhelming due come the reality that this holes will should bendand transition with the ice. PROCEDURE:Your team will be assigned a specific resource by her teacher and also youwill either give an oral presentation (6-8 minute) or compose a created (4-6page) report around the restore of that resource in Antarctica.Your report or presentation should follow the rundown below.1-Name that the resource.2-How the source is used.3-How the resource is mined or recovered native the planet in various other locations.4-List some of the environmental impacts native mining or recovering thisresource from existing methods.5-Design some feasible methods come mine or recuperate that source taking intoaccount the difficulties talked around in the background material above.6-Describe some feasible environmental impacts of recovering your resourcein Antarctica.7-Explain methods to minimize or eliminate the eco-friendly impacts fromrecovering her resource. SUGGESTIONS: execute #1-4 over first.Split increase the work amongst group members come share the work load. Use thefollowing resources: -Books indigenous the library -Encyclopedias -Newspaper or magazine articles -Articles native LEARNING attach -Each various other -There may not be a correct answer for #5-7. Carry out some creative thinkingbased top top #1-4 and also the lift material. Her answers need to make senseand be based upon sound ideas and reasoning. It is in CREATIVE-Bounce your principles off other group members. NOTE:To be sure that every members the the group are participating and also helping onthe project, make certain your carry out the following:-All members of the team should speak in presentation.-The created report is break-up into parts and also everyone need to write a part.Your team project is due on (DATE). APPLICATION task #4 ANTARCTICA resource PUZZLE PURPOSE:To see exactly how the concept of bowl tectonics deserve to be offered to find the locationof sources under the ice and around the leaf of Antarctica. BACKGROUND:The concept of bowl tectonics says that the earth"s late is comprised of aseries that pieces referred to as plates. These plates slide and move as they"float" on peak of the earth"s mantle. In ~ one time every one of the continentsformed one huge continent. This supercontinent was referred to as Gondwana.Since Australia, southern America, Africa, India and also Antarctica to be allconnected in ~ one time, we have the right to make part assumptions around Antarctica"smineral resources. By analyzing the species and locations of mineralspresently uncovered in Australia, south America, Africa, India, and by puttingthe continents ago together together they were 200 million years ago, we canestimate where those minerals have to be discovered in Antarctica today. PROCEDURE:1-Carefully reduced out the continent from the optimal of the Antarctica resourcepuzzle sheet. Be sure you save the an essential to the minerals; do not throw itaway.2-Using the diagram of the continents from the so late Jurrasic uncovered on thebottom the the Antarctica source puzzle sheet, place your reduced outcontinents in the same place as displayed in the so late Jurassic. Thecontinents will certainly not fit precisely together as result of the continent shelvesthat are under water, but are a component of the continents. This is exactly how thecontinents were connected during this time.3-Tape or glue every one of the continent in the place that you inserted themfor #3. Perform not tape or adhesive Antarctica.4-Place Antarctica in the position. Notification that all of the othercontinents have their resources marked by various symbols.5-You need to now try to do a design of wherein the resources will it is in inAntarctica. Mental the following: -The sources were developed at the exact same time. -They it seems to be ~ to form in bands. -Connect similar resources throughout continents if possible.6-Draw and also label ~ above Antarctica wherein you think the coal, oil, gas, andmetallic minerals would certainly be located.7-Attach Antarctica come the sheet and answer the review questions. ANTARCTICA source PUZZLE summary QUESTIONS1-What resources did you think would be found on Antarctica?2-How did every of these resources form?3-What sort of setting was essential to form these resources?4-Is the atmosphere that girlfriend talked around in #3 various then theenvironment discovered in Antarctica today? Explain?Give a reason why the environment could be various than the is this day inAntarctica.5-What presumptions did we have to make in using this an approach to uncover theresources under the ice of Antarctica?6-In the space below execute the following: -Draw a big supercontinent. Shade and label some resources on it. -Draw a succession of photos showing just how the large continents would certainly splitup and type four small continents. Shade and also label the sources on eachsmall continent. Review ANTARCTICA sources TEST NAME: PER: part 1:Multiple choice. Circle the correct answer.1-How lot of the surface of Antarctica is exposed over the Ice? a. 5% b. 10% c. 25% d. 3%2. How much of the civilizations fresh water is trapped in The ice of Antarctica. A. 85% b. 90% c. 25% d. 63%3-Much of what we know about the geology that Antarctica is because of: a. Studying the exposed rock of Antarctica b. The geology of phibìc America c. The geology the the southerly continents d. Every one of the above.4-Coal and also oil space both created by: a. Living points being hidden by lava. B. Living things that die and decompose. C. Living points being hidden under sediments. D. Living points being dissolved in warm water.Part 2: complement the source with its usage in our society.

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1-Lead a-Steel make 2-Copper b-Gasoline 3-Iron c-Storage battery 4-Coal d-Electrical devices 5-Petroleum e-Nuclear fuel 6-Uranium f-Fuel because that heatPart 3: Essay1-What are three difficulties with tourism in Antarctica?2-List four troubles of make the efforts to recuperate resources in Antarctica.3-What are natural resources?4-Pick two sources of Antarctica and also explain the following: -Name the the source -How the resource is developed -How we usage the source -Problems that recovering that source from Antarctica.Patricia A. Weegpweeg