DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is the hereditary product in human beings and nearly all other organisms. Virtually every cell in a person’s body has actually the same DNA. Most DNA is located in the cell nucleus (where that is referred to as nuclear DNA), however a little amount the DNA can additionally be discovered in the mitochondria (where it is referred to as mitochondrial DNA or mtDNA). Mitochondria

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space structures within cells that convert the energy from food right into a form that cells deserve to use.

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The info in DNA is stored together a code comprised of 4 chemical bases: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). Human being DNA consists of about 3 billion bases, and an ext than 99 percent of those bases are the same in all people. The order, or sequence, of these bases identify the information accessible for building and also maintaining an organism, similar to the way in which letters of the alphabet show up in a details order to form words and also sentences.

DNA bases pair up through each other, A v T and C v G, to kind units called base pairs. Every base is additionally attached come a sugar molecule and also a phosphate molecule. Together, a base, sugar, and phosphate are dubbed a nucleotide. Nucleotides room arranged in two long strands that type a spiral dubbed a double helix. The framework of the dual helix is somewhat favor a ladder, with the basic pairs forming the ladder’s rungs and also the sugar and phosphate molecules creating the upright sidepieces the the ladder.

An important property the DNA is that it can replicate, or make duplicates of itself. Each strand that DNA in the twin helix have the right to serve as a pattern for duplicating the sequence of bases. This is an important when cell divide due to the fact that each brand-new cell demands to have specific copy the the DNA existing in the old cell.


DNA is a twin helix created by basic pairs attached to a sugar-phosphate backbone.


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Credit: U.S. National Library of Medicine

For much more information about DNA:


The National human being Genome research Institute (NHGRI), a part of the nationwide Institutes of health (NIH), provides a truth sheet Deoxyribonucleic mountain (DNA) that offers an advent to this molecule.

StatedClearly supplies a video introduction to DNA and how the works.

The new Genetics, a publication of the national Institute of basic Medical Sciences, component of the NIH, discusses the framework of DNA and how it to be discovered.

A straightforward explanation and also illustration that DNA can be uncovered on Arizona State University"s "Ask a Biologist" website.

The virtual Genetics education and learning Centre, produced by the college of Leicester, offers additional information top top DNA, genes, and also chromosomes.

An overview of mitochondrial DNA is accessible from the Neuromuscular condition Center at Washington university in St. Louis.

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