This tutorial explains the simple functions, operations, and also characteristics that a computer. Find out the four major functions the a computer system through diagrams and also examples.

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Taking data and instructions native a user, handling the data as per instructions, and also displaying or storing the handle data, room the four major functions of a computer. These functions are additionally known as the input function, process function, calculation function, and also storage function, respectively.

The complying with diagram shows an instance of these functions.


To provide these functions, a computer system uses its materials or devices. Usually, contents of a computer system are designed to do only one of these 4 functions. But, some specialized components or tools are design to execute two, three or all 4 functions. Because that example, a tough disk can perform three functions: intake (when documents are read), warehouse (when records are saved), and also output (when files are written).

Components or devices of a computer, based upon the function in which they space used, deserve to be classified into four major types: the entry devices, calculation devices, warehouse devices, and processing devices. Because that example, if a component procedures the provided instructions, the component is known as the processing device. Or if a machine displays the handle data, the maker is recognized as the output device.

Input function and devices

A computer system is a data processing machine. That does nothing until a user (or a manuscript or a program) gives the data that demands to it is in processed and the instructions that tell it how to process the data.

Any standard machine or component that a user uses to instruct a computer system is known as the conventional input device. In various other words, a computer uses its traditional input gadgets or materials to gain instructions native a user.

The most usual input tools are the keyboard and mouse. Practically all contemporary computers have these devices. Other typical input tools are scanners, microphones, USB drives, and webcams.

Input data and also instruction can likewise be generated from a non-standard input maker such as the difficult disk and also CD/DVD. Because that example, a batch document in the home windows system may instruct the CPU to execute a routine or a script at a specific time.

Installation disks are another great example the non-standard intake devices. Usually, castle contain a script or one executable program that immediately starts the installation process as soon as the disk is read.

Process role and devices

Once the data and instructions are received by the intake function, the computer starts the processing function. In this function, a computer system processes the received data according to the instructions.

To process the input data according to the instructions, the computer system uses the CPU. A CPU is the key processing ingredient of a computer. It procedures user instructions, executes scripts and programs, and runs regulates of the OS that provide a platform because that installing and using application software.

Other vital processing components are assistant processors. Auxiliary processors are likewise known as onboard processors. Auxiliary processors are offered in gadgets to enhance their functionalities. You have the right to think of an auxiliary processor together the private CPU the a device.

Only materials or tools that administer the facility functionality such as Graphics cards, I/O devices, and also network user interface cards use auxiliary processors. For example, if a user color etc an image, the assistant processor on the graphics card performs every calculations that require in drawing the picture on the display device.

The following image mirrors a sample that both a CPU and an assistant processor.


The following table perform the main differences between a CPU and an assistant processor.

CPUAuxiliary processor
A CPU is a compulsory component. There is no it, a computer system does not work.An assistant processor is an optional component.
A CPU is an individual component. It is installed independently in the system.An assistant processor is one integrated component of a device. It can’t be installed separately.
A CPU is designed to do all varieties of tasks.An assistant processor is designed to perform only a specific type of task.

Output function and devices

After processing the entry data, the CPU, assistant processor, or the process function sends the processed data to the output role or come the default or configured output device. By default, computer systems use monitors together the default calculation device.

Aside native monitor, a range of output tools are likewise available. Each output an equipment presents the handle data in a various form, for example, a monitor, a printer, and also a speak displays, prints, and also plays the handle data, respectively.

A user, based on his requirement, deserve to connect and also use two, three or more output devices to the computer. For example, ~ viewing the processed data, a user have the right to send it come the press for printing.

Storage function and devices

Storing data and information is the fourth major function that a computer. This function allows us to conserve the handle data for later use. To keep data and information, a computer system uses two types of warehouse components: temporary and permanent.

Temporary storage components are used to save data temporarily. Data save in a short-term storage ingredient is erased when the mechanism is shutdown. Lamb is a compulsory short-lived storage component. A computer system uses the lamb to store the running applications and also their data.

Permanent storage components are supplied to store data permanently. Data save on computer in a irreversible storage ingredient is not erased as soon as the device is shutdown. The difficult disk is the most usual permanent storage component. Usually, all computer systems have at least one hard disk to store data. Other usual permanent storage contents or devices are external drives, USB drives, and CD/DVD.

The adhering to image shows an example of both varieties of warehouse components.


Storage tools are also used in the input and output functions, permitting data to be saved (output function) and also then accessed again later (input function).


The complying with table perform a couple of sample actions in addition to the surname of devices and functions the are offered when they room performed.

A user running a text-editor program types the letter Z ~ above the keyboard. The key-board sends a password representing the letter Z to the CPU. KeyboardInput
The CPU procedures the code and also determines what letter was typed. Climate the CPU sends instructions to the monitor to display screen the letter Z.CPUProcess
The monitor screens the letter Z.MonitorOutput
The user clicks the Save button. The mouse sends a password representing the click.MouseInput
The CPU processes the code and determines what activity was clicked. CPUProcess
The CPU saves the file on the disk.

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Hard diskStorage

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