study of biological diversity and evolutionary relationships amongst organisms, both extant and also extinct


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similarities amongst various varieties that occur bc the species are obtained from a common ancestor. (ex. Arm of human , bat wing, flipper whale)
involves analysis of hereditary data come identify and study genetic homologies and also propose phylogenetic trees
for example, among diff species, a former limb, i m sorry is a character, might exist in various character claims such as a wing, an arm, or a flipper.
a character that is common by 2 or much more different taxa and inherited indigenous ancestors older than their last usual ancestor
a character that is mutual by 2 or more species or taxa and has source in their most recent common ancestor
compared to mutual primitive characters, shared derived characters are more recent traits on an evolutionary timescale
states the the wanted hypothesis is the one the is the most basic for all the characters and their states. (one method for picking among possible phylogenetic tree is come assume the the finest hypothesis is the one that calls for the smallest variety of evolutionary changes.
what is the probability that an evolution model and also a suggest phylogenetic tree would provide rise come the it was observed data?
what is the probability the a certain phylogenetic tree is correct offered the it was observed data and also a specific evolutionary model
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