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‘The lord be v you’ is a presidential greeting, which is most frequently encountered in ~ the beginning of the a liturgy and also and the beginning of the eucharistic prayer. It is additionally found prior to the analysis of the Gospel, prior to a blessing, before blessing baptismal water, in the center of Exsultet, and also before praying a collect.
The biblical references of Ruth 2.4, II Chronicles 15.2 and also Matthew 28.20 are given in assistance of this phrase. It deserve to be plainly dated earlier to the sixth century (Council of Braga and, later, Gelasian Sacramentary), but can it is in inferred indigenous the Apostolic Tradition and also other early texts.
Grammatically, that course, the Latin original has actually no verb: Dominus vobiscum means, more literally, ‘Lord with you’. English requirements the verb ‘to be’ to act together a copula. An obvious an option would have been to translate the phrase with ‘The mr is through you’ (this is in the indicative mood). Instead, our English reformers made decision ‘The mr be through you’, in the subjunctive mood. Uneven much talked English, and indeed created English, the subjunctive atmosphere is ~ above quite constant duty in the publication of usual Prayer. The subjunctive is often used in blessing formulas, and this shows crucial interpretation that this phrase: that is not around stating a reality — the Lord’s visibility — however is the blessing of the Lord’s presence. A significant feature of a many liturgical language is that it is performative: it does something. This particular phrase is the greeting — the benediction — that constitutes the Christian assembly because that worship.
The east churches have ‘Peace come all’ / ‘And v thy spirit’, but its use is different.
And with thy spirit
The Latin response to Dominus vobiscum is Et cum spiritu tuo. The classic English translation of this is ‘And with thy spirit’, and the agreed ecumenical translate in into modern English is ‘And additionally with you’. The contemporary translation is clearly more the a paraphrase than a straight translation of the Latin. This pictured understands the usage of words ‘spirit’ as metonymy because that the minister’s person or self.
The Epistles use this expression at Galatians 6.18, Philippians 4.23, Philemon 25 and also II Timothy 4.22.
The brand-new Catholic translate into of the missal has taken us back closer come the initial by utilizing ‘And with your spirit’. A friend who is a Catholic priest comment to me that he find the previous translation — ‘And also with you’ — more affirming the his totality person 보다 the brand-new translation.
Et cum spiritu tuo is plainly not a direct reference to the divine Spirit, together the spirit does no belong come the minister. At its simplest, ‘your spirit’ is metonymy for ‘you’, and avoids the short, ungainly Et tecum, ‘And v you’ (even ‘And likewise with you’ supplies extra syllables). Other commentators have defined the expression as an acknowledgement of the spirituality grace offered the ordained minister by the divine Spirit. That is comparable to the east affirmation of a priest’s ordination by the acclamation the the people: axios, ‘worthy’.
It is essential to speak around how we do, and should do, Dominus vobiscum. This is wherein I believe that the selection of the goodbye in English is informative. The greeting is no a statement that Jesus is here so let’s get on v it. It is a benediction that recognises the symbol of Christ in the assembly of the baptized, and also draws out this image, verbally constituting the ekklesia. At the commencement, and also at other high clues of liturgy, the minister hence constitutes the church, and also the people, in response, explain the human being being before them to be your minister by grace.
Some principlesIt is important: do not sirloin it or belittle it.It is the greeting the constitutes the liturgical assembly.It must not be preceded or complied with by an ext colloquial stock phrases that greeting, like ‘hello’, ‘good morning’, etc.The just thing that must preface the opened greeting is the Trinitarian invocation.Giving notices, and even announcing a hymn, prior to the greeting takes far from the impact.It is easy to remember, for this reason it should not be review from a book.It can lead into words of welcome and advent (the ‘intention’).It need to be attach by the ideal gesture: arms open in a welcoming embrace.The gesture must not be either poky or overlarge.The gesture should not be stiff or vague.Traditionally, a deacon makes no gesture with these words.The monk or deacon need to be attentive come the people’s response, and drink in their affirmation prior to proceeding.
Common praise Order One starts with one optional Trinitarian invocation by the eucharistic president. This is adhered to by among two presidential greetings. The an initial is ‘The mr be with you’ / ‘and likewise with you’, while the alternate is ‘Grace, mercy and also peace indigenous God our Father and also the mr Jesus Christ be through you’ / ‘and likewise with you’. The paschal acclamation constantly follows in Eastertide, however this require not be said or sung by the president.
Some other common Worship liturgies usage the elegant (II Corinthians 13.14) as the greeting: ‘The grace of our mr Jesus Christ, the love of God, and the fellowship of the holy Spirit be with you’ / ‘and also with you’. It shows up as among the greetings in Patterns for Worship (p 64, amongst others), and is used as the greeting come the Maundy Thursday liturgy in Times and Seasons (p 294). This renders this greeting generally authorized because that use. These 3 greetings, then, room the main possibilities for opening a eucharist, and also correspond precisely to the 3 options accessible in the Catholic missal. Right here is choice, however I favor the old, basic greeting.
At the start of the eucharistic prayer, the same very first greeting is used, or replaced with a different text ‘The mr is here’ / ‘His spirit is v us’. The same choices are given in the traditional-language variation of order One, other than the traditional an answer ‘and through thy spirit’ adheres to ‘The lord be through you’. Order Two, being based upon the Prayer Book, walk not start with a greeting. However, the does imply that the collection be presented with the classic greeting. It permits the usage of the greeting in ~ the beginning of the preface. Oddly, the contemporary-language variation of stimulate Two has actually neither of this optional additions. Note 2 (on p 330 the the main Volume) enables the usage of classic texts come replace modern-day ones. This way that the solution ‘and v thy spirit’ is allow in a contemporary-language service. At a push, one could deem this to encompass use of the brand-new Catholic translation, ‘and v your spirit’. Much more relevant is note 7 (on p 331), which allows ‘The mr be through you’ and also either response at other suitable points. The keep in mind gives before the Gospel and also before the blessing or dismissal together examples. The choice of placing it before the dismissal is odd, yet the other positions have actually precedent. That does not point out the other classic position of before the collect.
Catholic missal: new English translation
In the brand-new English translate into of the Catholic missal, after the obligated trinitarian invocation, there are three feasible greetings: ‘The elegant of our mr Jesus Christ, and also the love of God, and the communion the the holy Spirit be through you all’, ‘Grace to you and peace from God ours Father and also the lord Jesus Christ’ or ‘The lord be through you’. The same response — ‘And through your spirit’ – is used for each. The missal mentions a bishop’s strange greeting as ‘Peace be v you’ through the same response. The missal does no repeat the greeting before the collect. The greeting is, however, used before announcing the Gospel. The same greeting is provided at the beginning of the eucharistic prayer, there is no any alternatives admitted. Before the blessing, the celebrant uses the greeting again. The Tridentine Mass offers the greeting eight times: prior to ascending to the altar, prior to the collects, before the Gospel, the offertory prayer, the eucharistic preface, the post-communion prayer, the critical Gospel and also the blessing.
Book of typical Prayer
The communion organization of the publication of common Prayer go not include the timeless greeting in any type of position. It clearly was felt to be too sacerdotal. However, cutting board Cranmer’s first Prayer publication (of 1549) has the greeting before the bidding ‘Let united state pray’ come the collect. The greeting also heads the eucharistic prayer. Finally, the greeting shows up before the ‘Let us pray’ the introduces the post-communion thanksgiving that begins ‘Almighty and everliving God, we many heartily say thanks to thee…’.
One major place where the classic greeting continued to be throughout the revisions that the Prayer book is in the offices of matins and evensong. In the 1549 original, the greeting prefaces the ‘Let us pray’ prior to the three collects. These came after the preces. In the very first revision the the Prayer publication (in 1552) the solutions of morning and evening prayer were completely reworked, and also the traditional greeting to be moved in between the Apostles’ Creed and also the tiny Litany (kyries), a position retained through 1662.
The episcopal variation of Dominus vobiscum is Pax vobis, translated ‘Peace be v you’ (literally ‘Peace come you’), through the usual response.
A layperson, traditionally a subdeacon, offers the form Domine exaudi orationem meam, ‘O Lord, hear my prayer’, v the an answer Et clamor noster advertisement te veniat, ‘And let our cry come depend thee’. This is taken native the very first verse that Psalm 102.
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Postscript of Latin geekery
The Latin preposition cum method ‘with’, and also its thing is in the ablative case. The an individual pronoun vos, i beg your pardon is ‘you’ in the many (when speak to an ext than one person), takes the form vobis in the ablative. Unusually, cum follows and also joins to personal pronouns, creating the forms mecum, tecum, secum, nobiscum, vobiscum (‘with me; girlfriend (singular); him, her, it, them; us; you (plural)’). The object phrase spiritu tuo is additionally in the ablative case. In the phrase Pax vobis, the pronoun is in the datil case, also though that is spelt the same as the ablative, definition ‘to you’.