Plutus and also Demeter, Apulian red-figure loutrophoros C4th B.C., The J. Paul Getty Museum

DEMETER to be the Olympian goddess the agriculture, grain and bread who continual mankind through the earth"s rich bounty. She presided over the foremost of the an enig Cults which promised its intiates the path to a blessed afterlife in the realm of Elysium. Demeter was illustrated as a mature woman, regularly wearing a crown and bearing sheafs that wheat or a cornucopia (horn of plenty), and a torch.

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several of the more famous myths featuring the goddess include:--

The abduction of she daughter Persephone by Hades, and the great dearth she carried down ~ above the earth. More>>

The education of Demophoon, the young boy of King Keleus (Celeus) of Eleusis. More>>

The journeys that Triptolemos, a hero sent out by the goddess to instruct mankind in agriculture. More>>

Her assault by Poseidon that forcefully coupled through her in the kind of a horse. More>>

The penalty of Erysikhthon (Erysichthon) that was cursed with an unquenchable hunger by the goddess for cutting under her divine grove. More>>

Many other myths are comprehensive over the adhering to pages.

DEMETER PAGES ~ above sdrta.net

This site consists of a total of 15 pages relenten the goddess, including basic descriptions, mythology, and cult. The content is outlined in the index of Demeter Pages (left tower or below).



KRONOS & RHEA (Hesiod Theogony 453, Apollodorus 1.4, Diodorus Siculus 5.68.1, Hyginus Fabulae, et al)


See household of Demeter


Persephone and Demeter, Athenian red-figure lekythos C5th B.C., National historical Museum, Athens

DEMETER, among the an excellent divinities that the Greeks. Tho name Demeter is supposed by part to be the very same as gê mêtêr, the is, mother earth, while others take into consideration Deo, i m sorry is identified with Demeter, as connected with dais and dainumi, and as obtained from the Cretan indigenous dêai, barley, so that Demeter would certainly be the mother or giver that barley or of food generally. (Hom. Il. v. 500.) These two etymologies, yet do not suggest any type of difference in the personality of the goddess, however leave it basically the same.

Demeter to be the daughter that Cronus and Rhea, and also sister of Hestia, Hera, Aides, Poseidon, and also Zeus. Like the other kids of Cronus she to be devoured by she father, however he provided her soon again after acquisition the emetic i beg your pardon Metis had provided him. (Hesiod. Theog. 452, &c.; Apollod. I. 2. § 1.)

By her brothers Zeus, Demeter came to be the mother of Persephone (Proserpina) and also Dionysus (Hesiod. Theoq. 912; Diod. Iii. 62), and also by Poseidon that Despoena and also the horse Arion. (Apollod. Iii. 6. § 8; Paus. Viii. 37. § 6.) The most prominent part in the mythus of Demeter is the rape of her daughter Persephone by Pluto, and this story no only says the main idea embodied in Demeter, but additionally directs our fist to the primary seats of her worship. Zeus, there is no the expertise of Demeter, had promised Persephone come Pluto, and while the unsuspecting maiden to be gathering flower which Zeus had actually caused to prosper in order come tempt her and to favour Pluto"s scheme, the earth suddenly opened and also she was brought off by Aïdoneus (Pluto). Her cries the anguish were heard just by Hecate and also Helios. She mother, who heard only the echo of her voice, immediately collection out in search of her daughter.

The spot where Persephone was believed to have actually been brought into the lower world is various in the different traditions; the typical story places it in Sicily, in the neighbourhood the Enna, on mount Aetna, or between the wells Cyane and also Arethusa. (Hygin. Fab. 146, 274; Ov. Met. V. 385, Fast. iv. 422; Diod. V. 3; Cic. in Verr. iv. 48.) This legend, i m sorry points come Sicily, despite undoubtedly an extremely ancient (Pind. Nem. I. 17), is absolutely not the original tradition, due to the fact that the worship of Demeter was introduced right into Sicily by homesteaders from Megara and also Corinth. Other heritages place the rape that Persephone in ~ Erineus on the Cephissus, in the neighbourhood of Eleusis (Orph. Hymn. 17.15), at Colonus in Attica (Schol. ad Soph. Oed. Col. 1590), in an island of the Atlantic close to the western shore of Spain (Orph. Argon. 1190), in ~ Hermione in Peloponnesus (Apollod. I. 5. § 1; Strab. Viii. P. 373), in Crete (Schol. ad Hesiod. Theog. 914), or in the neighbourhood the Pisa. (Paus. Vi. 21. § 1.) others again location the occasion at Pheneus in Arcadia (Conon, Narr. 15), or at Cyzicus (Propert. Iii. 21. 4), while the Homeric chant on Demeter places it in the level of Nysa in Asia. In the Iliad and also Odyssey the rape the Persephone is not expressly mentioned.

Demeter wandered about in find of her daughter because that nine days, there is no taking any nectar or ambrosia, and also without bathing. Top top the tenth she met Hecate, that told her the she had actually heard the cries of Persephone, however did not know who had brought her off. Both then hastened to Helios, that revealed come them thai Pluto had actually been the ravisher, and with the consent of Zeus. Demeter in her anger at this news avoided Olympus, and also dwelt top top earth amongst men, conferring presents and also blessings wherever she was kindly received, and also severely punishing those who repulsed she or go not receive her gifts with appropriate reverence. In this path she pertained to Celeus at Eleusis. As the goddess still continued in her anger, and produced famine on the planet by not permitting the areas to produce any type of fruit, Zeus, anxious that the gyeongju of mortals need to not come to be extinct, sent Iris to induce Demeter to go back to Olympus. (Comp. Paus. Viii. 42. § 2.) however in vain.

At size Zeus sent all the god of Olympus come conciliate she by entreaties and presents; but she vowed not to return to Olympus, nor to regain the fertility that the earth, till she had actually seen she daughter again. Zeus appropriately sent Hermes right into Erebus to fetch earlier Persephone. Aïdoneus consented, indeed, to Persephone returning, but gave she a component of a pomegranate come eat, in order that she might not constantly remain with Demeter. Hermes then took she in Pluto"s chariot come Eleusis to she mother, to whom, after ~ a hearty welcome, she related her fate. At Eleusis both to be joined through Hecate, that henceforth remained the attendant and companion of Persephone. Zeus now sent Rhea to persuade Demeter to go back to Olympus, and additionally granted the Persephone must spend just a part of the year (i. E. the winter) in subterraneous darkness, and that during the remainder of the year she have to remain v her mother. (Comp. Ov. Met. v. 565, Fast. iv. 614; Hygin. Fab. 146.)

Rhea accordingly descended come the Rharian plain near Eleusis, and conciliated Demeter, who currently again allowed the fruits of the fields to grow. But prior to she parted indigenous Eleusis, she instructed Triptolemus, Diocles, Eumolpus, and also Celeus in the setting of she worship and in the mysteries. These space the main features of the mythus around Demeter, together it is consisted of in the Homeric hymn; in later traditions it is otherwise modified.

Demeter to be the goddess of the earth (Eurip. Bacch. 276), and more especially of the planet as producing fruit, and also consequently the agriculture, whence human food or bread is called by Homer Il. xiii. 322) the gift of Demeter. The notion of her being the writer of the earth"s fertility was prolonged to the of fertility in general, and she appropriately was looked upon additionally as the goddess of marriage (Serv. ad Aen. iv. 58), and also was worshipped specifically by women. Her priestess additionally initiated young married human being into the duties of their new situation. (Plut. de Off. Conj. 1.) together the goddess that the planet she was choose the various other sdrta.net chthonioi, a subterraneous divinity, who worked in the areas inaccessible come the light ray of Helios. As agriculture is the basis of a well-regulated social condition, Demeter is represented likewise as the friend of peace and also as a law-giving goddess. (thesmophoros, Callim. Hymn. In Cer. 138; Orph. Hymn. 39. 4; Virg. Aen. iv. 58; Hom. Il. v. 500; Ov. Met. v. 341; Paus. Viii. 15. § 1.)

The mythus of Demeter and also her daughter embodies the idea, that the abundant powers that the planet or nature rest or space concealed throughout the winter season; the goddess (Demeter and Persephone, also called Cora, are here identified) climate rules in the depth of the planet mournful, but striving upwards come the all-animating light. Persephone, that has consumed of the pomegranate, is the fructified flower that returns in spring, dwells in the an ar of light throughout a portion of the year, and nourishes men and animals with her fruits.

Later thoughtful writers, and perhaps the mysteries also, ad the disappearance and also return the Persephone come the burial of the human body of man and also the immortality of his soul.

Demeter was worshipped in Crete, Delos, Argolis, Attica, th western coast of Asia, Sicily and Italy, and her praise consisted in a good measure in orgic mysteries. Among the numerous festivals celebrated in her honour, the Thesmophoria and also Eleusinia to be the principal ones. (Dict. Of Ant. S. Vv. Chloëa, Haloa, Thesmophoria, Eleusinia, Megalartia Chthonia.) The sacrifices offered to her had pigs, the price of fertility, bulls, cows, honey-cakes, and also fruits. (Macrob. Sat. i. 12, iii. 11; Diod. V. 4; Paus. Ii. 35. § 4, viii. 42, in fin.; Ov. Fast. iv. 545.) Her holy places were dubbed Megara, and were often developed in groves in the neighbourhood of towns. (Paus. I. 39. § 4, 40. § 5, vii. 26. § 4, viii. 54. § 5, ix. 25. § 5; Strab. Viii. P. 344, ix. P. 435.) many of she surnames space descriptive the the personality of the goddess.

She was regularly represented in works of art, despite scarcely one entire statue of her is preserved. She representations appear to have actually been brought to right perfection by Praxiteles. (Paus. I. 2. § 4.) Her photo resembled the of Hera, in that maternal character, but had a softer expression, and her eyes were less widely opened. She to be represented periodically in a sit attitude, periodically walking, and sometimes talk in a chariot drawn by steeds or dragons, but constantly in complete attire. Approximately her head she wore a garland that corn-ears or a basic ribband, and in her hand she hosted a sceptre, cornears or a poppy, sometimes likewise a torch and the mystic basket. (Paus. Iii. 19. § 4, viii. 31. § 1, 42. § 4; Plin. H. N. xxxiv. 8. S. 19.) She shows up most commonly on gems and vases. The Romans received the prayer of Demeter, to who they applied the surname of Ceres, native Sicily. (Val. Max. I. 1. § 1.)

Source: dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology.

See more: Chapter 8 The Associative Entity Is Also Known As A ____ Entity.

CLASSICAL literary works QUOTES


Demeter, Athenian red-figure volute krater C5th B.C., Badisches LandesmuseumI) THE HOMERIC HYMNS

Homeric singing 2 come Demeter 1 ff (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epos C7th or 6th B.C.) :"I start to sing of rich-haired Demeter reverend goddess (semne thea)--of her and her trim-ankled daughter whom Aidoneus (Haides) rapt away . . . Appropriate blessed is he among men on earth whom they freely love: quickly they do send Ploutos (Plutus, Wealth) together guest come his good house, Ploutos (Wealth) who offers wealth come mortal men. And now, queen of the land of sweet Eleusis and sea-girt Paros and also rocky Antron, queen (potnia), giver of great gifts (aglaodoros), bringer of seasons (horephoros), lady (anassa) Deo, it is in gracious, you and your daughter every beauteous Persephone, and for my song grant me heart-cheering substance."

Homeric hymn 13 come Demeter :"I start to sing of rich-haired Demeter, terrible goddess, the her and also of her daughter lovely Persephone. Hail, goddess! store this city safe, and also govern my song."


Orphic singing 40 come Demeter (trans. Taylor) (Greek hymns C3rd B.C. To second A.D.) :"To Demeter Eleusinia. O global mother, Deo famed, august, the resource of wealth, and various named: good nurse, all-bounteous, blessed and also divine, who joyest in peace; to nourish corn is thine. Goddess that seed, of fruits abundant, fair, harvest and also threshing space thy constant care. Lovely exciting queen, by all desired, that dwellest in Eleusis" holy vales retired. Nurse of all mortals, who benignant mind first ploughing oxen to the yoke confined; and also gave to males what nature"s wants require, through plenteous way of bliss, which all desire. In verdure flourishing, in glory bright, assessor of great Bromios bearing light: rejoicing in the reapers" sickles, kind, who nature lucid, earthly, pure, we find. Prolific, venerable, nurse divine, your daughter loving, holy Koure . A automobile with Drakones (Dragon-Serpents) yoked "tis thine come guide, and, orgies singing, ring thy throne to ride. Only-begotten, much-producing queen, every flowers are thine, and also fruits of beloved green. Glowing Goddess, come, v summer"s rich rise swelling and pregnant, top smiling peace; come v fair concord and imperial health, and also join through these a needful save of wealth."

Orphic chant 41 to Demeter :"To Meter Antaia (Cerulean Mother) . Basileia Antaia (Cerulean Queen) , of celebrated name, from whom both men and Gods immortal came; who widely hike once, oppressed through grief, in Eleusis" valleys foundest relief, learning Persephone thy daughter pure in dread Aides (Hades), dismal and also obscure. A spiritual youth while with the earth you stray, Dysaulos , attending leader that the way; the holy marriage Khthonios Zeus relating, when oppressed with grief you rove. Come, much invoked, and to these rites inclined, her mystic suppliant bless, with favouring mind."

III) other HYMNS

Bacchylides, Fragment 3 (trans. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric IV) (C5th B.C.) :"Of Demeter, ruler of corn-rich Sikelia (Sicily), and also of the violet-garlanded Koure (Core) sing."

Greek Lyric V Scolia, Fragment 885 (trans. Campbell) (Greek lyric B.C.) : "I song of the mother of Ploutos (Plutus, Wealth), Demeter Olympia, in the garland-wearing season, and of you, Persephone, kid of Zeus: greetings, both! often tend the city well."

Callimachus, chant 6 come Demeter (trans. Mair) (Greek poet C3rd B.C.) :"As the Basket comes, greet it, ye women, speak ‘Demeter, significantly hail! Lady of lot bounty, of numerous measures of corn.’ together the Basket comes, indigenous the ground candlestick ye behold it, ye uninitiated, and also gaze not from the roof or indigenous aloft--child nor wife nor maid hath burned her hair --neither then nor when we spit native parched mouths fasting . Hesperos (the evening Star) from the clouds marks the moment of its coming: Hesperos, who alone persuaded Demeter come drink, what time she gone after the unknown tracks of she stolen daughter .Lady, just how were thy feet able to carry thee unto the West, unto the Melanoi (Black Men) and where the gold apples are? she didst no drink nor dist thou eat during that time no one didst thou wash. Thrice didst thou overcome Akheloios v his silver eddies, and also as frequently didst thou happen over each of the ever-flowing rivers, and also thrice didst thou seat thee on the ground beside the fractional Kallikhoros (Callichorus) , parched and without drinking, and also didst no eat nor wash.Nay, nay, let us not speak of that which lugged the tear to Deo! much better to tell just how she gave cities satisfaction ordinances; better to tell just how she was the very first to reduced straw and holy sheaves that corn-ears and also put in oxen to tread them, what time Triptolemos to be taught the great craft . . .O Demeter, never may that male be mine friend that is hateful come thee, nor ever may that share party-wall v me; ill neighbours I abhor.Sing, ye maidens, and also ye mothers, say v them : ‘Damater, significantly hail! Lady of lot bounty, of numerous measures that corn.’ and as the four white-haired equines convey the Basket, so unto united state will the great goddess of large dominion come brining white spring and also white harvest and winter and autumn, and also keep us to an additional year. And also as unsandalled and also with hair unbound us walk the city, for this reason shall we have foot and also head unharmed for ever. And also as the van-bearers be afflicted with vans full of gold, so might we gain gold unstinted. Far as the City Chambers allow the uninitiated follow, yet the initiated even unto the an extremely shrine of the goddess--as plenty of as space under sixty years. But show that are heavy and she that stretches she hand come Eileithyia and she that is in pain--sufficient it is that they go so much as your knees are able. And to them Deo shall provide all things to overflowing, even as if they come unto she temple.Hail, goddess, and also save this human being in harmony and in prosperity, and also in the fields lug us all pleasant things! feed our kine, carry us flocks, lug us the corn-ear, carry us harvest! and nurse peace, that he who sows may additionally reap. It is in gracious, O thrice-prayed for, an excellent Queen the goddesses!"

Ovid, Metamorphoses 5. 341 ff (trans. Melville) (Roman epos C1st B.C. Come C1st A.D.) :"Ceres very first turned the planet with the curved plough; she first gave corn and also crops come bless the land; she very first gave laws; every things room Ceres" gift. The Ceres ns have to sing. Five that my song may hymn the goddess" worship as she deserves, a goddess who deserved high hymns of praise."


Classical Greek literary works offers just a few, short descriptions of the physical attributes of the gods.

Homeric singing 2 come Demeter 40 ff (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epos C7th or sixth B.C.) :" She rent the extending upon her divine hair with her to ~ hands: her dark coat she actors down indigenous both she shoulders . . . Queenly Deo wandered end the planet with flaming torches in her hands."

Homeric singing 2 to Demeter 182 ff :" walked behind . . . With her head veiled and also wearing a dark cloak which waved around the slim feet that the goddess . . . Quickly they concerned the residence of heaven-nurtured Keleos (Celeus) and went with the portico . . . The goddess walked to the threshold: and also her head reached the roof and she fill the doorway with a heavenly radiance. Then awe and also reverence and also pale are afraid took host of Metaneira, and she climbed up from she couch prior to Demeter."

Homeric chant 2 to Demeter 275 ff :" ‘Lo! ns am that Demeter who has actually share the honour and is the greatest aid and cause of happiness to the undying gods and mortal males . . .’When she had so said, the goddess changed her stature and her looks, advertise old age away from she : beauty spread round around her and also a lover fragrance was wafted from she sweet-smelling robes, and also from the magnificent body that the goddess a irradiate shone afar, while golden tresses spread down over she shoulders, so the the solid house was filled through brightness similar to lightning. And so she went out from the palace. And straightway Metaneira"s knees were loosed and also she remained speechless because that a long while."

Callimachus, chant 6 to Demeter 58 ff (trans. Mair) (Greek poet C3rd B.C.) :"Demeter was angered beyond telling and put on she goddess form . Her procedures touched the earth, yet her head reached unto Olympos. And also they , half-dead as soon as they beheld the lady goddess, rushed suddenly away, leaving the copper axes in the trees."

Ovid, Fasti 4. 417 ff (trans.Boyle) (Roman poetry C1st B.C. Come C1st A.D.) :"To a spiritual feast; the blonde goddess came."

Ovid, Fasti 4. 575 ff :"Ceres revived her very own look . . . And crowned her hair with chaplets the corn."

Nonnus, Dionysiaca 5. 562 ff (trans. Rouse) (Greek epic C5th A.D.) :"She untied the fruitful frontlet from she head, and shook loosened the lengthy locks of hair over she neck."