The Edict of Nantes to be issued ~ above April 13, 1598, by King Henry IV of France to grant the Calvinist Protestants the France (also known as Huguenots) comprehensive rights in a country still considered essentially roman inn Catholic. The main concern was civil unity, and also the Edict separated civil from spiritual unity, treated part Protestants for the first time as an ext than only schismatics and also heretics, and also opened a course for secularism and tolerance. In giving general freedom of conscience to individuals, the edict offered many particular concessions to the Protestants, such as amnesty and the reinstatement that their civil rights, including the right to work in any kind of field including for the State, and also to carry grievances straight to the king. It marks the finish of eight religious wars that tore personally the population of France during the second fifty percent of the 16 century.

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Background

The Edict aimed generally to end the long-running, disruptive French wars of Religion.<1> Additionally, Henry IV had an individual reasons for sustaining the Edict: before assuming the throne in 1589, he had espoused Protestantism, and also he continued to be sympathetic to the Protestant reason following his coronation as King the France. He had actually converted to Catholicism only in 1593 in order to secure his position as king, supposedly saying "Paris is fine worth a Mass." The Edict succeeded in restoring peace and internal unity to France, though it pleased no party: Catholics garbage the evident recognition that Protestantism together a permanent element in French culture and still hoped to enforce spiritual uniformity, when Protestants aspired to parity through Catholics. "Toleration in France was a royal notion, and also the religious settlement to be dependent ~ above the continued support that the crown."<2>

Henrey IV believed that re-establishing imperial authority in France required a peaceful relationship in between Protestants and also Catholics, based on toleration implemented by the crown. Due to the fact that royal troops can not be everywhere, Huguenots required to be granted strictly circumscribed possibilities the self-defense.<3>

The edict


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The Edict the Nantes<4> that Henry IV signed made up four an easy texts, consisting of a primary text comprised of 92 articles and also largely based on unsuccessful tranquility treaties signed throughout the recent wars. The Edict additionally included 56 "particular" (secret) articles dealing through Protestant rights and also obligations. For example, the French state guaranteed protection of French Protestants travelling overseas from the Inquisition. "This crucifies me," protested Pope Clement VIII, top top hearing the the Edict. The last two parts consisted of brevets (letters patent), which contained the army clauses and also pastoral clauses. These 2 brevets were withdrawn in 1629, by Louis XIII, adhering to a final religious civil war.

The 2 letters patent supplementing the Edict<5> granted the Protestants areas of safety and security (places de sureté), which were army strongholds such together La Rochelle, in support of which the king payment 180,000 écus a year, together with a further 150 emergency forts (places de refuge), to be preserved at the Huguenots" very own expense. Together an act of toleration was inexplicable in western Europe, where conventional practice compelled subjects to monitor the religious beliefs of their ruler—the applications of the rule of cuius regio, eius religio.

While it granted details privileges come Protestants, the edict reaffirmed Catholicism together the developed religion of France. Protestants gained no exemption from payment the tithe (the King involved to support the good news ministers in component recompense) and had come respect Catholic holidays and restrictions regarding marriage. The authorities restricted Protestant freedom of worship to specified geographical areas. The Edict dealt just with Protestant and Catholic coexistence; the made no point out of Jews, or the Muslims, that were readily available temporary asylum in France once the Moriscos (Christian converts native Islam) were being expelled indigenous Spain.<6>

The original Act i m sorry promulgated the Edict, has disappeared. The Archives Nationales in Paris preserves only the message of a shorter paper modified by concessions extracted from the King by the clergy and also the Parliment that Paris, which delayed ten months, before finally signing and setting seals to the document in 1599. A copy the the first edict, sent for safekeeping to good news Geneva, survives. The provincial parliments withstood in your turn; the most recalcitrant, the conference of Rouen, did no unreservedly it is registered the Edict till 1609.<7>

Revocation


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The Edict continued to be in unaltered effect, registered by the parliaments together "fundamental and also irrevocable law," through the exemption of the brevets, which had actually been granted because that a period of eight years, and also were put in order by Henry in 1606 and also in 1611 through Marie de Médecis, who confirmed the Edict in ~ a week of the assassination of Henry, stilling Protestant fears of an additional St. Bartholomew"s job massacre. The subsidies had been lessened by degrees, together Henry gained an ext secure regulate of the nation.<8> through the peace of Montpellier in 1622, finish a Huguenot revolt in Languedoc, the fortified Protestant towns were diminished to two, La Rochelle and also Montauban. The brevets were entirely withdrawn in 1629, by Louis XIII, complying with the Siege the La Rochelle, in i beg your pardon Cardinal Richelieu blockaded the city for fourteen months.

During the remainder the Louis XIII"s reign, and especially throughout the decimal of luigi XIV, the implementation the the Edict differed year through year, voiced in declarations and orders, and in instance decisions in the Council, fluctuating according to the tides of domestic politics and the connections of France v powers abroad.<9>

In October 1685, louis XIV, the nephew of Henry IV, renounced the Edict and declared Protestantism illegal through the Edict of Fontainebleau. This act, frequently called the Revocation the the Edict that Nantes, had really damaging outcomes for France. While the battles of religious beliefs did no re-ignite, plenty of Protestants determined to leave France, most moving to great Britain, Prussia, the dutch Republic, Switzerland and the new French nests in phibìc America. Huguenots also resolved in south Africa. This exodus deprived France of many of its many skilled and also industrious individuals, that would from currently on help France"s rivals in Holland and England. The revocation that the Edict that Nantes also further damaged the tardy of louis XIV abroad, making the Protestant countries bordering France even more hostile come his regime. Top top the revocation of the edict, Frederick Wilhelm approve the Edict that Potsdam, which motivated Protestants to pertained to Brandenburg.

Notes


References

Gammell, William. The Huguenots and also the Edict of Nantes: A file read prior to the Rhode Island historical Society. Providence push Co, 1886.Rothrock, George A. Jr. "Some aspects of early Bourbon policy toward the Huguenots." Church background 29(1) (March 1960): 17-24.Ruth Kleinman, "Changing Interpretations of the Edict the Nantes: The bureaucratic Aspect, 1643-1661." French historic Studies 10(4) (Autumn 1978): 541-571.

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