The centromere is a region in i beg your pardon A) chromatids continue to be attached to one one more until anaphase.

You are watching: The cyclin component of mpf is destroyed toward the end of which phase?

B) metaphase chromosomes become aligned in ~ the metaphase plate.

C) chromosomes room grouped during telophase.

D) the nucleus is located prior come mitosis.

E) brand-new spindle microtubules kind at either end.


For a newly evolving protist, what would certainly be the benefit of utilizing eukaryote-like cell division rather 보다 binary fission?

A) Binary fission would certainly not permit for the formation of brand-new organisms.

B) Cell division would enable for the orderly and also efficient distinction of multiple straight chromosomes.

C) Cell department would be much faster than binary fission.

D) Cell division allows for lower rates of error per chromosome replication.

E) Binary fission would not permit the organism to have complicated cells.


Suppose a biologist deserve to separate among a dozen pieces of dyed from a eukaryotic (animal) nucleus. It could consist of which of the following?

A) one-twelfth of the gene of the organism

B) two chromosomes, every with six chromatids

C) a single circular item of DNA

D) two long strands that DNA add to proteins

E) 2 chromatids attached together at a centromere


At i beg your pardon phase room centrioles beginning to move apart in animal cells?

A) telophase

B) anaphase

C) prometaphase

D) metaphase

E) prophase


If cell in the procedure of splitting are subjected to colchicine, a medicine that interferes with the development of the spindle apparatus, in ~ which stage will mitosis be arrested?

A) anaphase

B) prophase

C) telophase

D) metaphase

E) interphase


If there are 20 centromeres in a cabinet at anaphase, how countless chromosomes space there in each daughter cell following cytokinesis?

A) 10

B) 20

C) 30

D) 40

E) 80


Where execute the microtubules that the spindle originate during mitosis in both plant and also animal cells?

A) centromere

B) centrosome

C) centriole

D) chromatid

E) kinetochore


Taxol is an anticancer medicine extracted indigenous the Pacific yew tree. In animal cells, Taxol disrupts microtubule development by binding to microtubules and increasing their assembly from the protein precursor, tubulin. Surprisingly, this stop mitosis. Special, Taxol need to affect

A) the formation of the mitotic spindle.

B) anaphase.

C) formation of the centrioles.

D) chromatid assembly.

E) the S step of the cabinet cycle.


Which that the adhering to are mostly responsible because that cytokinesis in tree cells but not in pet cells?

A) kinetochores

B) Golgi-derived vesicles

C) actin and myosin

D) centrioles and centromeres

E) cyclin-dependent kinases


In which group of eukaryotic bio organisms does the nuclear envelope remain intact throughout mitosis?

A) seedless plants

B) dinoflagellates

C) diatoms

D) dinoflagellates and also diatoms only

E) seedless plants, dinoflagellates, and also diatoms


Movement that the chromosomes throughout anaphase would certainly be most influenced by a drug that

A) reduces cyclin concentrations.

B) boosts cyclin concentrations.

C) avoids elongation that microtubules.

D) prevents shortening the microtubules.

E) avoids attachment of the microtubules to the kinetochore.


Measurements of the amount of DNA per nucleus were taken on a big number of cell from a farming fungus. The measure up DNA levels ranged from 3 come 6 picograms per nucleus. In which stage of the cell cycle go the cell nucleus contain 6 picograms that DNA?

A) G0

B) G1

C) S

D) G2

E) M


A group of cell is assayed because that DNA content instantly following mitosis and is found to have actually an typical of 8 picograms of DNA every nucleus. How countless picograms would be found at the finish of S and also the finish of G2?

A) 8; 8

B) 8; 16

C) 16; 8

D) 16; 16

E) 12; 16


For anaphase to begin, i beg your pardon of the following must occur?

A) Chromatids must lose their kinetochores.

B) Cohesin must connect the sister chromatids to every other.

C) Cohesin should be cleaved enzymatically.

D) Kinetochores must attach to the metaphase plate.

E) Spindle microtubules must start to depolymerize.


Why do chromosomes coil during mitosis?

A) to increase their potential energy

B) to permit the chromosomes to move without becoming entangled and breaking

C) to allow the chromosomes to fit within the atom envelope

D) to allow the sister chromatids to continue to be attached

E) to provide for the structure of the centromere


Which the the following ideal describes exactly how chromosomes relocate toward the poles of the spindle throughout mitosis?

A) The chromosomes room "reeled in" by the convulsion of spindle microtubules.

B) motor proteins the the kinetochores relocate the chromosomes along the spindle microtubules.

C) Nonkinetochore spindle fibers offer to push chromosomes in the direction of the poles.

D) The chromosomes are "reeled in" by the contraction of spindle microtubules, and also motor proteins of the kinetochores relocate the chromosomes follow me the spindle microtubules.

E) The chromosomes room "reeled in" by the contraction of spindle microtubules, motor proteins of the kinetochores move the chromosomes along the spindle microtubules, and also nonkinetochore spindle fibers offer to push chromosomes in the direction of the poles.


The chromosomes space "reeled in" through the convulsion of spindle microtubules, and motor proteins of the kinetochores move the chromosomes along the spindle microtubules 

Which that the adhering to is a role of those spindle microtubules that perform not attach to kinetochores?

A) keeping an proper spacing amongst the relocating chromosomes

B) developing a cleavage furrow as soon as telophase is complete

C) giving the ATP needed by the fibers attached to kinetochores

D) keeping the region of overlap that microtubules in the cell"s center

E) pulling the poles of the spindles closer come one another


Maintaining the region of overlap the microtubules in the cell"s center

During which step of mitosis carry out the chromatids become chromosomes?

A) telophase

B) anaphase

C) prophase

D) metaphase

E) cytokinesis


Telophase 

Which that the following was a exploration that had to be made prior to human chromosomes might be properly counted?

A) exactly how to usage a hypotonic solution to swell nuclei

B) just how to visualize sperm nuclei

C) exactly how to visualize chromosomes

D) as soon as to watch chromosomes separate from one another

E) when to check out chromosomes in pairs


How to use a hypotonic systems to swell nuclei 

Which of the complying with is (are) compelled for engine proteins to role in the movement of chromosomes towards the poles of the mitotic spindle?

A) undamaged centromeres

B) an MTOC (microtubule organizing center)

C) a kinetochore attached come the metaphase plate

D) ATP as an energy source

E) synthetic of cohesin


ATP as an power source 

What is a cleavage furrow?

A) a ring of vesicles forming a cell plate

B) the separation of divided prokaryotes

C) a groove in the plasma membrane between daughter nuclei

D) the metaphase plate wherein chromosomes connect to the spindle

E) the space that is created in between two chromatids during anaphase


A groove in the plasma membrane between daughter nuclei 

Which that the complying with proteins are associated in binary fission as well as eukaryotic mitotic division?

A) cyclins

B) Cdks

C) MPF

D) actin and tubulin

E) cohesins


Actin and also tubulin 

Using i m sorry of the complying with techniques would allow your lab group to distinguish between a cabinet in G2 and a cabinet from the same organism in G1?

A) fluorescence microscopy

B) electron microscopy

C) spectrophotometry

D) radioactive-labeled nucleotides

E) labeling kinetochore proteins


Radioactive-labeled nucleotides 

You have actually the an innovation necessary to measure up each of the complying with in a sample of animal cells: chlorophylls, organelle density, picograms of DNA, cell wall components, and also enzymatic activity. Which would you intend to increase considerably from M come G1?

A) organelle density and enzymatic activity

B) cell wall components and DNA

C) chlorophyll and also cell walls

D) organelle density and cell walls

E) chlorophyll and DNA


Organelle density and also enzymatic activity 

A plant-derived protein known as colchicine have the right to be offered to poison cell by prevent the formation of the spindle. I m sorry of the following would result if colchicine is added to a sample of cell in G2?

A) The cell would automatically die.

B) The cells would certainly be unable to begin M and stay in G2.

C) The chromosomes would certainly coil and also shorten however have no spindle come which to attach.

D) The chromosomes would certainly segregate but in a disorderly pattern.

E) each resultant daughter cell would additionally be unable to kind a spindle.


The chromosomes would coil and shorten however have no spindle to which come attach 

What reasons the to decrease in the amount of cyclin at a specific point in the cell cycle?

A) rise in production once the restriction point is passed

B) the cascade of increased production once its protein is phosphorylated through Cdk

C) the transforming ratio of cytoplasm come genome

D) its destruction by a procedure initiated through the task of its complex with a cyclin

E) the binding of PDGF to receptor on the cabinet surface


It"s devastation by a procedure initiated through the task of its facility with a cyclin 

Which the the adhering to is exit by platelets in the vicinity of an injury?

A) PDGF

B) MPF

C) protein kinase

D) cyclin

E) Cdk


PDGF

Which of the following is a protein synthesized at details times throughout the cell cycle the associates v a kinase to form a catalytically energetic complex?

A) PDGF

B) MPF

C) protein kinase

D) cyclin

E) Cdk


Cyclin 

Which that the following is a protein preserved at constant levels throughout the cabinet cycle that requires cyclin to come to be catalytically active?

A) PDGF

B) MPF

C) protein kinase

D) cyclin

E) Cdk


Cdk

Which the the following triggers the cell"s passage past the G2 checkpoint into mitosis?

A) PDGF

B) MPF

C) protein kinase

D) cyclin

E) Cdk


MPF 

The cyclin ingredient of MPF is destroyed toward the finish of i beg your pardon phase?

A) G0

B) G1

C) S

D) G2

E) M


M

Proteins that are affiliated in the regulation the the cell cycle, and also that show fluctuations in concentration during the cabinet cycle, are called

A) ATPases.

B) kinetochores.

C) kinases.

D) proton pumps.

E) cyclins.


Cyclins 

The MPF protein facility turns itself off by

A) activating a procedure that destroys cyclin components.

B) activating an enzyme that stimulates cyclin.

C) binding to chromatin.

D) exiting the cell.

E) activating the anaphase-promoting complex.


Activating a process that destroys cyclin components 

A mutation results in a cell the no longer produces a normal protein kinase because that the M phase checkpoint. I beg your pardon of the following would most likely be the immediate an outcome of this mutation?

A) The cell would certainly prematurely go into anaphase.

B) The cell would never leave metaphase.

C) The cell would never get in metaphase.

D) The cell would never get in prophase.

E) The cell would undergo common mitosis, however fail to enter the next G1 phase.


The cell would undergo typical mitosis, however fail to go into the next G1 phase

Density-dependent inhibition is explained by which of the following?

A) together cells become much more numerous, they start to squeeze versus each other, restricting their size and capacity to produce control factors.

B) together cells become an ext numerous, the cell surface ar proteins the one cell call the adjoining cells and also they prevent dividing.

C) as cells become much more numerous, the protein kinases lock produce start to complete with every other, such the the proteins developed by one cell basically cancel those produced by that is neighbor.

D) as cells become an ext numerous, an ext and an ext of them enter the S phase of the cell cycle.

E) as cells become much more numerous, the level of waste commodities increases, at some point slowing under metabolism.


As cell become more numerous, the cell surface ar proteins that one cell contact the adjoining cells and they avoid dividing 

Which that the following is true concerning cancer cells?

A) They perform not exhibit density-dependent inhibition when cultivation in culture.

B) when they prevent dividing, they carry out so at arbitrarily points in the cell cycle.

C) They room not topic to cell cycle controls.

D) as soon as they protect against dividing, they do so at random points in the cabinet cycle, and also they space not topic to cell cycle controls.

E) once they stop dividing, they execute so at random points in the cell cycle; they space not subject to cabinet cycle controls; and they perform not exhibit density-dependent inhibition when cultivation in culture.


When they prevent dividing, they carry out so at arbitrarily points in the cabinet cycle; they room not topic to cell cycle controls; and also they do not exhibit density-dependent inhibition when cultivation in culture 

Which the the complying with describe(s) cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk)?

A) Cdk is inactive, or "turned off," in the presence of cyclin.

B) Cdk is present throughout the cabinet cycle.

C) Cdk is one enzyme that attaches phosphate groups to other proteins.

D) Cdk is inactive, or "turned off," in the existence of cyclin and it is current throughout the cabinet cycle.

E) Cdk is existing throughout the cell cycle and also is one enzyme the attaches phosphate teams to various other proteins.


Cdk is existing throughout the cell cycle and is an enzyme the attaches phosphate groups to other proteins 

A certain cyclin dubbed cyclin E creates a facility with Cdk 2 (cyclin-dependent kinase 2). This complicated is crucial for the progression of the cabinet from G1 right into the S phase of the cell cycle. Which of the complying with statements is correct?

A) The quantity of cost-free cyclin E is greatest throughout the S phase.

B) The lot of totally free Cdk 2 is greater during G1 compared to the S phase.

C) The lot of complimentary cyclin E is highest during G1.

D) The quantity of free Cdk 2 is greatest throughout G1.

E) The activity of the cyclin E/Cdk 2 facility is highest during G2.


The quantity of totally free cyclin E is the highest throughout G1

Cells indigenous an progressed malignant tumor most frequently have an extremely abnormal chromosomes, and often one abnormal total number of chromosomes. Why might this occur?

A) Cancer cells are no longer density dependent.

B) Cancer cells are no longer anchorage dependent.

C) Chromosomally abnormal cells deserve to still go through cell cycle checkpoints.

D) Chromosomally abnormal cells still have actually normal metabolism.

E) change introduces new chromosomes right into cells.


Chromosomally abnormal cells have the right to still go with cell bike checkpoints 

Besides the capacity of part cancer cells to overproliferate, what else can logically an outcome in a tumor?

A) metastasis

B) changes in the stimulate of cabinet cycle stages

C) lack of appropriate cell death

D) inability to type spindles

E) inability of chromosomes to meet at the metaphase plate


Lack of appropriate cell death

After i m sorry checkpoint is the cell an initial committed to continue the cabinet cycle with M?

A) G0

B) G1

C) G2

D) S

E) ahead M


G1

Why carry out neurons and also some other specialized cells division infrequently?

A) castle no longer have active nuclei.

B) castle no longer bring receptors because that signal molecules.

C) They have been shunted right into G0.

D) They deserve to no much longer bind Cdk to cyclin.

E) They show a fall in MPF concentration.


They have actually been shunted into G0

Which the the complying with most accurately explains a cyclin?

A) the is present in similar concentrations transparent the cell cycle.

B) that is triggered to phosphorylate through complexing with a Cdk.

C) it decreases in concentration once MPF activity increases.

D) it activates a Cdk molecule as soon as it is in enough concentration.

E) it activates a Cdk when its concentration is decreased.


It activates a Cdk molecule as soon as it is in sufficient concentration 

All cabinet cycle checkpoints are comparable in i beg your pardon way?

A) castle respond come the same cyclins.

B) They utilize the exact same Cdks.

C) They give the go-ahead signal to progression to the following checkpoint.

D) castle each have actually only one cyclin/Cdk complex.

E) lock activate or inactivate various other proteins.


They activate or inactivate various other proteins 

At the M phase checkpoint, the facility allows for what to occur?

A) Separase enzyme cleaves cohesins and permits chromatids to separate.

B) Cohesins alter separase to enable chromatids come separate.

C) Kinetochores are able to tie to spindle microtubules.

D) every microtubules room made to tie to kinetochores.

E) Daughter cells are permitted to pass right into G1.


Separase enzyme cleaves cohesins and allows chromatids come separate 

What defines anchorage dependence of animal cells in vitro or in vivo?

A) attachments of spindle fibers to centrioles

B) solution of the plasma membrane to cell cycle controls

C) the makeup of the extracellular procession of the substrate

D) the binding of cell-surface phospholipids come those that adjoining cells

E) the binding of cell-surface phospholipids to the substrate


Response the the plasma membrane to cabinet cycle controls 

A research study team started a study of a cultured cabinet line. Your preliminary observations showed them the the cell heat did not exhibit either density-dependent inhibition or anchorage dependence. What can they conclude right away?

A) The cells originated in the concerned system.

B) The cells are unable to form spindle microtubules.

C) They have altered series of cabinet cycle phases.

D) The cells show characteristics of tumors.

E) They to be originally acquired from one elderly organism.


The cell show qualities of tumors 

For a chemotherapeutic drug to be useful for treating cancer cells, i m sorry of the complying with is most desirable?

A) that is safe enough to border all apoptosis.

B) the does not transform metabolically energetic cells.

C) it only assaults cells the are thickness dependent.

D) that interferes with cells entering G0.

E) that interferes through rapidly splitting cells.


It interferes v rapidly separating cells 

You have a series of cells, all of which were derived from tumors, and also you very first need to discover out i m sorry ones are malignant. What might you do?

A) see which ones room not overproliferating.

B) discover out which ones have actually a higher rate of apoptosis.

C) Karyotype samples to look because that unusual size and number of chromosomes.

D) measure metastasis.

See more: Into What Region Of The Pharynx Do Auditory Tubes Open Into The

E) Time your cell cycles.


Karyotype samples to look because that unusual dimension and variety of chromosomes 

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