Neurons are cells that have been adapted to lug nerve impulses. A typical neuron has actually a cell body comprise a nucleus, one or an ext branching filaments called dendrites which command nerve impulses in the direction of the cabinet body and one long fibre, an axon, the carries the impulses far from it. Countless axons have a sheath of fat material called myelin neighboring them. This increases the rate at which the nerve impulses take trip along the nerve (see chart 14.1).
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Diagram 14.1 - A engine neuron
The cell human body of neurons is usually located in the brain or spinal cord if the axon expand the totality distance to the body organ that it supplies. The neuron delivering impulses from the spinal cord to the hind foot or tail that a horse, because that example, can be number of feet long. A nerve is a bundle of axons.
A sensory neuron is a nerve cell that transmits impulses native a feeling receptor such together those in the eye or ear to the mind or spinal cord. A motor neuron is a nerve cell that transmits impulses native the mind or spinal cord come a muscle or gland. A relay neuron connects sensory and motor neurons and also is uncovered in the mind or spinal cord (see diagrams 14.1 and 14.2).
Diagram 14.2 - The relationship in between sensory, relay and motor neurons
Connections between Neurons
The link between adjacent neurons is referred to as a synapse. The 2 nerve cells execute not in reality touch right here for over there is a microscopic room between them. The electric impulse in the neurone prior to the synapse stimulates the manufacturing of chemicals dubbed neurotransmitters (such as acetylcholine), which room secreted right into the gap.
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The neurotransmitter chemicals diffuse throughout the gap and also when they call the membrane of the following nerve cabinet they wake up a brand-new nervous impulse (see diagram 14.3). After ~ the impulse has actually passed the chemical is destroyed and also the synapse is all set to obtain the next nerve impulse.
Diagram 14.3 - A nerve and magnification of a synapse
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