Identify nature of and changes in issue as physical or chemicalIdentify properties of matter as extensive or intensive

Recall the chemistry is the examine of matter, its properties, the transforms that issue undergoes and also the energy linked with these changes. In this chapter, we’ll take it a closer look in ~ matter and energy and how they room related.

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When issue undergoes change, the procedure is often accompanied through a readjust in energy — heat, light, sound, kinetic energy of relocating matter, etc… If heat is evolved throughout a readjust (is released) the change is exothermic. If heat is demands to it is in supplied, the adjust is endothermic.

An important distinction, is that warm is energy that flows as result of a temperature difference, while temperature is a measure up of the median kinetic energy of the molecules in a substance. The much faster they move, the “hotter” it is.

The qualities that enable us to distinguish one substance from another are called properties. A physical property is a properties of issue that is not linked with a adjust in its chemistry composition. Familiar examples of physics properties encompass density, color, hardness, melting and also boiling points, and also electrical conductivity. We have the right to observe some physical properties, such as density and also color, without changing the physical state that the matter observed. Other physical properties, such as the melt temperature of iron or the freeze temperature that water, can only be observed as matter undergoes a physics change. A physical change is a readjust in the state (Figure 1) or nature of matter without any type of accompanying change in its chemical composition (the identities that the substances had in the matter), such as dissolution and also dilution.

Figure 1. The different phase transforms that matter deserve to undergo.

We observe a physical change when wax melts, as soon as sugar disappear in coffee, and also when vapor condenses into liquid water (Figure 2). Other instances of physical alters include magnetizing and demagnetizing steels (as is excellent with common antitheft security tags) and grinding solids right into powders (which deserve to sometimes yield noticeable alters in color). In every of these examples, there is a change in the physical state, form, or properties of the substance, but no adjust in its chemical composition.

Figure 2. (a) Wax undergoes a physical change when hard wax is heated and forms fluid wax. (b) vapor condensing inside a food preparation pot is a physics change, as water vapor is readjusted into fluid water. (credit a: alteration of job-related by “95jb14”/Wikimedia Commons; credit transaction b: change of occupational by “mjneuby”/Flickr)

The readjust of one form of matter right into another type (or the i can not qualify to change) is a chemical property. Examples of chemical properties incorporate flammability, toxicity, acidity, reactivity (many types), and also heat the combustion. Iron, because that example, combines v oxygen in the visibility of water to type rust; chromium does not oxidize (Figure 3). Nitroglycerin is an extremely dangerous because it explodes easily; neon poses nearly no hazard since it is very unreactive.

Figure 3. (a) one of the chemistry properties of stole is the it rusts; (b) among the chemical properties that chromium is the it does not. (credit a: modification of occupational by Tony Hisgett; credit b: modification of occupational by “Atoma”/Wikimedia Commons)

To identify a chemistry property, we look for a chemistry change. A chemical change always produces one or an ext types of issue that different from the issue present prior to the change. The formation of rust is a chemical change because rust is a various kind of issue than the iron, oxygen, and also water present before the rust formed. The explode of nitroglycerin is a chemical change because the gases created are an extremely different type of matter from the original substance. Other instances of chemical changes include reaction that room performed in a laboratory (such together copper reacting with nitric acid), all forms of burning (burning), and food being cooked, digested, or rotting (Figure 4).

Figure 4. (a) Copper and nitric acid undergo a chemical change to kind copper nitrate and brown, gas nitrogen dioxide. (b) during the combustion of a match, cellulose in the match and also oxygen native the air undergo a chemical change to kind carbon dioxide and water vapor. (c) food preparation red meat reasons a variety of chemical changes, including the oxidation of iron in myoglobin that results in the familiar red-to-brown shade change. (d) A banana turning brown is a chemical readjust as new, darker (and less tasty) substances form. (credit b: alteration of job-related by Jeff Turner; credit c: modification of work by Gloria Cabada-Leman; credit d: modification of work-related by Roberto Verzo)

Example 1

Classify every of the adhering to as either a physics property, or a chemical property:a) The boiling point of water is 100oCb) Oxygen is a gasc) sugar ferments to kind alcohol


a) back this property explains a change, this adjust does not involve a adjust in substance. H2O stays H2O despite what state that is in. Thus, this is a physical property.

b) This is an natural property, and also is because of this a physics property.

c) This property involves a adjust in substance, from sugar to alcohol. This is a chemistry property.

Test Yourself

Classify each of the complying with as one of two people a physics property, or a chemistry property:a) This page is white b) Wood burns c) Milk curdles if left out


a) physical building b) chemical residential property c) chemistry property

Properties of matter fall into one of two categories. If the residential property depends top top the lot of issue present, the is one extensive property. The mass and volume of a substance are examples of comprehensive properties; because that instance, a gallon that milk has actually a larger mass and volume than a cup that milk. The worth of substantial property is directly proportional to the lot of issue in question. If the residential property of a sample of matter does not depend on the amount of issue present, it is an intensive property. Temperature is an instance of an extensive property. If the gallon and cup that milk are each in ~ 20 °C (room temperature), once they room combined, the temperature remains at 20 °C. As an additional example, think about the distinct but related nature of heat and temperature. A drop of hot cooking oil spattered on your arm causes brief, young discomfort, conversely, a pot of warm oil yields severe burns. Both the drop and also the pot of oil room at the very same temperature (an extensive property), but the pot clearly contains much much more heat (extensive property).

Example 2

Classify each of the following as either a physical change, or a chemical change:a) vapor condensing on a shower head mirrorb) Iron developing rustc) one antacid tablet fizzes when it comes in call with stomach acidd) Salt disappear in water


a) The steam is water vapor, and also when that condenses, it forms liquid water top top the mirror.This is a physical change.

b) stole reacts through the oxygen in air, forming an stole oxide, which is rust.This is a chemistry change.

c) The fizzing in the water is the release of carbon dioxide gas once it come in call with acid. This is a chemical change.

d) dissolve is taken into consideration a physics change. Even though the bond of salt are pulled apart once dissolved, they execute not type new bonds, or a brand-new substance. If you evaporate the water, salt will certainly remain.

Test Yourself

Classify every of the following as one of two people a physical change, or a chemical change:a) A rubber tape stretches as soon as you traction itb) Acetone removes nail polishc) Copper is melted in ~ high temperaturesd) Silver metal tarnishes end time


a) physical change b) physical readjust (dissolving)c) physical readjust d) chemistry change

Example 3

Describe each process as a physical adjust or a chemistry change.

a) Water in the waiting turns right into snow.

b) A who hair is cut.

c) Bread dough becomes new bread in one oven.


a) because the water is going native a gas step to a hard phase, this is a physical change.

b) Your lengthy hair is being shortened. This is a physical change.

c) since of the oven’s temperature, chemical alters are arising in the bread dough to make fresh bread. These are chemical changes. (In fact, a many of cooking involves chemical changes.)

Test Yourself

Identify each process as a physical change or a chemical change.

a) A fire is raging in a fireplace.

b) Water is warmed to make a cup of coffee.


a) chemical adjust b) physics change

Hazard Diamond

You may have actually seen the symbol displayed in figure 5 ~ above containers of chemistry in a laboratory or workplace. Sometimes referred to as a “fire diamond” or “hazard diamond,” this chemical risk diamond provides an useful information that briefly summarizes the various threats of which come be conscious when working with a particular substance.

Figure 5. The national Fire Protection company (NFPA) peril diamond summarizes the major hazards that a chemistry substance.

The nationwide Fire Protection company (NFPA) 704 risk Identification mechanism was arisen by NFPA to provide safety information about particular substances. The system details flammability, reactivity, health, and also other hazards. In ~ the in its entirety diamond symbol, the height (red) diamond states the level the fire risk (temperature range for speed point). The blue (left) diamond shows the level of wellness hazard. The yellow (right) diamond defines reactivity hazards, such as exactly how readily the substance will undergo detonation or a violent chemistry change. The white (bottom) diamond point out out one-of-a-kind hazards, such as if it is an oxidizer (which permits the substance to burn in the absence of air/oxygen), undergoes an unusual or attention reaction v water, is corrosive, acidic, alkaline, a organic hazard, radioactive, and so on. Each peril is rated on a range from 0 come 4, with 0 being no hazard and also 4 being incredibly hazardous.

Decomposition that Water / production of Hydrogen

Water is composed of the aspects hydrogen and also oxygen merged in a 2 to 1 ratio. Water deserve to undergo a chemical adjust involving the water molecule being damaged down right into hydrogen and also oxygen gases by the addition of energy. One method to do this is through a battery or strength supply, as displayed in (Figure 6).

Figure 6. The decomposition the water is shown at the macroscopic, microscopic, and also symbolic levels. The battery provides an electric existing (microscopic) that decomposes water. In ~ the macroscopic level, the liquid separates into the gases hydrogen (on the left) and oxygen (on the right). Symbolically, this readjust is gift by showing how liquid H2O separates right into H2 and also O2 gases.

The failure of water involves a rearrangement of the atoms in water molecules into various molecules, each composed of two hydrogen atoms and two oxygen atoms, respectively. Two water molecules kind one oxygen molecule and also two hydrogen molecules. The depiction for what occurs, 2\textH_2\textO(l) \rightarrow 2\textH_2(g) + \textO_2(g), will certainly be discover in more depth in later chapters.

The 2 gases developed have distinctly various properties. Oxygen is not flammable however is required for combustion of a fuel, and also hydrogen is highly flammable and also a potent power source. How might this understanding be applied in our world? One application requires research into an ext fuel-efficient transportation. Fuel-cell vehicles (FCV) run on hydrogen instead of gasoline (Figure 7). Castle are more efficient 보다 vehicles with internal burning engines, room nonpolluting, and also reduce greenhouse gas emissions, making us less dependent top top fossil fuels. FCVs are not yet financially viable, however, and also current hydrogen production depends on natural gas. If we can construct a procedure to economically decompose water, or develop hydrogen in another environmentally sound way, FCVs may be the means of the future.

Figure 7. A fuel cabinet generates electric energy native hydrogen and oxygen via one electrochemical process and produces only water as the rubbish product.

While many aspects differ significantly in their chemical and also physical properties, some aspects have comparable properties. We deserve to identify sets of aspects that exhibit usual behaviors. For example, many facets conduct heat and electricity well, whereas rather are poor conductors. This properties can be used to type the aspects into three classes: metals (elements that conduct well), nonmetals (elements that conduct poorly), and metalloids (elements that have properties the both metals and nonmetals).

The regular table is a table of aspects that places elements with similar properties close together (Figure 6). You will learn an ext about the routine table as you continue your examine of chemistry.

Figure 6. The routine table reflects how facets may be group according to certain comparable properties. Note the background color denotes whether an facet is a metal, metalloid, or nonmetal, vice versa, the aspect symbol color indicates whether it is a solid, liquid, or gas.

Key Concepts and Summary

All substances have distinct physical and chemical properties, and may undergo physical or chemistry changes. Physical properties, such as hardness and also boiling point, and physical changes, such together melting or freezing, carry out not involve a change in the ingredient of matter. Chemical properties, together flammability and also acidity, and also chemical changes, such together rusting, involve production of issue that different from that current beforehand.

Measurable properties fall into one of two categories. Substantial properties depend on the amount of issue present, because that example, the massive of gold. Extensive properties perform not rely on the quantity of matter present, because that example, the thickness of gold. Warm is an example of comprehensive property, and also temperature is an instance of an intensive property.


1. Classify every of the following transforms as physics or chemical:

a) condensation the steam

b) burn of gasoline

c) souring of milk

d) dissolve of street in water

e) melting of gold

2. The volume the a sample of oxygen gas readjusted from 10 mL come 11 mL together the temperature changed. Is this a chemistry or physics change?

3. Describe the difference in between extensive properties and also intensive properties.

4. The density (d) of a substance is an extensive property that is characterized as the proportion of its massive (m) come its volume (V).

\textdensity= \frac\textmass\textvolume \textd = \frac\textm\textV

Considering that mass and volume room both considerable properties, explain why your ratio, density, is intensive.

5. Does every statement represent a physical residential or commercial property or a chemical property?

a) Sulfur is yellow.

b) stole wool burns as soon as ignited through a flame.

c) A gallon of milk weighs end eight pounds.

6. Does every statement represent a physical residential or commercial property or a chemistry property?

a) A heap of leaves gradually rots in the backyard.

b) In the presence of oxygen, hydrogen can connect to do water.

c) Gold deserve to be stretched into really thin wires.

7. Does each statement stand for a physical adjust or a chemical change?

a) Water boils and becomes steam.

b) Food is converted right into usable kind by the cradle system.

c) The alcohol in countless thermometers freezes at around −40 degrees Fahrenheit.

8. Does every statement represent a physical change or a chemistry change?

a) Graphite, a type of element carbon, deserve to be turned into diamond, another kind of carbon, at very high temperatures and pressures.

b) The aspects sodium and chlorine come with each other to do a brand-new substance dubbed sodium chloride.


1. A) physical; b) chemical; c) chemical; d) physical; e) physical

2. Physical

3. The value of an extensive property depends upon the quantity of matter being considered, vice versa, the value of an extensive property is the very same regardless that the lot of matter being considered.

4. Being extensive properties, both mass and volume are directly proportional to the amount of substance under study. Separating one considerable property by one more will in effect “cancel” this dependence on amount, yielding a proportion that is live independence of quantity (an extensive property).

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5. a) physical building b) chemical home c) physical property

6. a) chemical property b) chemical building c) physical property


chemical change: change developing a various kind of matter from the original kind that matter

chemical property: behavior the is regarded the adjust of one sort of issue into one more kind that matter

endothermic: if heat is demands to it is in supplied, for a adjust to occur

energy: the capability to execute “work”— that is, because that a pressure to action on something and push some distance

exothermic: if warmth is released throughout a change

extensive property: property of a problem that counts on the quantity of the substance

intensive property: property the a substance that is live independence of the lot of the substance

physical change: change in the state or nature of matter that does not involve a adjust in its chemistry composition

physical property: characteristic of issue that is not associated with any adjust in its chemistry composition


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