Before we obtain into the complying with learning units, which will provide much more detailed conversation of topics on different human body systems, the is crucial to discover some helpful terms for describing body structure. Discovering these terms will certainly make that much much easier for us to understand the content of the adhering to learning units. Three teams of terms are presented here:

Directional Terms

Directional terms define the location of structures family member to various other structures or locations in the body.

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Superior or cranial - towards the head finish of the body; upper (example, the hand is component of the superior extremity).

Inferior or caudal - away from the head; lower (example, the foot is component of the inferior extremity).

Anterior or ventral - prior (example, the kneecap is located on the anterior side of the leg).

Posterior or dorsal - earlier (example, the shoulder blades are situated on the posterior next of the body).

Medial - toward the midline that the human body (example, the middle toe is situated at the medial next of the foot).

Lateral - far from the midline of the human body (example, the tiny toe is situated at the lateral side of the foot).

Proximal - toward or nearest the tribe or the suggest of beginning of a component (example, the proximal end of the femur joins through the pelvic bone).

Distal - far from or farthest from the tribe or the suggest or beginning of a part (example, the hand is situated at the distal end of the forearm).


Planes of the Body

Coronal plane (Frontal Plane) - A vertical plane running from next to side; divides the body or any of its parts right into anterior and also posterior portions.

Sagittal aircraft (Lateral Plane) - A vertical airplane running from front come back; divides the human body or any type of of the parts into right and also left sides.

Axial aircraft (Transverse Plane) - A horizontal plane; divides the body or any kind of of its parts right into upper and lower parts.

Median plane - Sagittal aircraft through the midline that the body; divides the human body or any kind of of its parts right into right and also left halves.

Body Cavities

The cavities, or spaces, that the human body contain the inner organs, or viscera. The two key cavities are called the ventral and dorsal cavities. The ventral is the bigger cavity and is subdivided right into two parts (thoracic and also abdominopelvic cavities) by the diaphragm, a dome-shaped respiratory tract muscle.


Thoracic cavity

The upper ventral, thoracic, or chest cavity includes the heart, lungs, trachea, esophagus, large blood vessels, and also nerves. The thoracic cavity is tied laterally by the ribs (covered by costal pleura) and the diaphragm caudally (covered through diaphragmatic pleura).

Abdominal and also pelvic cavity

The lower part of the ventral (abdominopelvic) cavity have the right to be further divided into two portions: abdominal portion and pelvic portion. The abdominal cavity has most of the gastrointestinal tract as well as the kidneys and adrenal glands. The abdominal cavity is tied cranially through the diaphragm, laterally through the body wall, and also caudally through the pelvic cavity. The pelvic cavity consists of most that the urogenital system and also the rectum. The pelvic cavity is bounded cranially by the abdominal muscle cavity, dorsally by the sacrum, and laterally through the pelvis.

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Dorsal cavity

The smaller of the two key cavities is referred to as the dorsal cavity. Together its surname implies, it consists of organs lying an ext posterior in the body. The dorsal cavity, again, deserve to be split into 2 portions. The upper portion, or the cranial cavity, dwellings the brain, and the reduced portion, or vertebral canal houses the spinal cord.