Lead

Element 82 of Periodic table is Lead with atomic number 82, atomic weight 207.2. Lead, symbol Pb, has a Face Centered Cubic structure and SlateGray color. Lead is a post-transition metal element. Trivial name of Lead is tetrels, crystallogens. Know everything about Lead Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.


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Lead (/lɛd/) is a chemical element in the carbon group with symbol Pb (from Latin:plumbum) and atomic number 82. Lead is a soft, malleable and heavy post-transition metal. Metallic lead has a bluish-white color after being freshly cut, but it soon tarnishes to a dull grayish color when exposed to air.

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Lead Facts

Read key information and facts about element Lead

Name Lead
Atomic Number 82
Atomic Symbol Pb
Atomic Weight 207.2
Phase Solid
Color SlateGray
Classification post-transition metal
Group in Periodic Table 14
Group Name carbon family
Period in Periodic Table 6
Block in Periodic Table p-block
Electronic Configuration 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p2
Melting Point 327.46 °C
Boiling Point 1749 °C
Electronic Shell Structure <2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 4>
CAS Number CAS7439-92-1

Neighborhood
49
In
50
Sn
51
Sb
81
Tl
82
Pb
83
Bi
113
Nh
114
Fl
115
Mc
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
1
1
H
2
He
2
3
Li
4
Be
5
B
6
C
7
N
8
O
9
F
10
Ne
3
11
Na
12
Mg
13
Al
14
Si
15
P
16
S
17
Cl
18
Ar
4
19
K
20
Ca
21
Sc
22
Ti
23
V
24
Cr
25
Mn
26
Fe
27
Co
28
Ni
29
Cu
30
Zn
31
Ga
32
Ge
33
As
34
Se
35
Br
36
Kr
5
37
Rb
38
Sr
39
Y
40
Zr
41
Nb
42
Mo
43
Tc
44
Ru
45
Rh
46
Pd
47
Ag
48
Cd
49
In
50
Sn
51
Sb
52
Te
53
I
54
Xe
6
55
Cs
56
Ba
72
Hf
73
Ta
74
W
75
Re
76
Os
77
Ir
78
Pt
79
Au
80
Hg
81
Tl
82
Pb
83
Bi
84
Po
85
At
86
Rn
7
87
Fr
88
Ra
104
Rf
105
Db
106
Sg
107
Bh
108
Hs
109
Mt
110
Ds
111
Rg
112
Cn
113
Nh
114
Fl
115
Mc
116
Lv
117
Ts
118
Og
Lanthanides
57
La
58
Ce
59
Pr
60
Nd
61
Pm
62
Sm
63
Eu
64
Gd
65
Tb
66
Dy
67
Ho
68
Er
69
Tm
70
Yb
71
Lu
Actinide
89
Ac
90
Th
91
Pa
92
U
93
Np
94
Pu
95
Am
96
Cm
97
Bk
98
Cf
99
Es
100
Fm
101
Md
102
No
103
Lr

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How to Locate Lead on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 82 to find Lead on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Lead on periodic table look for cross section of group 14 and period 6 in the modern periodic table.

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Table of Contents


History
Abundance
Physical Properties
Thermal Properties
Crystal Structure
Atomic & Orbital Properties
Chemical Properties
Isotopes
Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines
Databases
Compare Lead with other elements

Lead History

The element Lead was discovered by Middle East in year 4000 BC in unknown place . Lead derived its name from English word (plumbum in Latin)

Lead Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Lead in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth"s Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

Ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe 1×10-6%
Abundance in Sun 1×10-6%
Abundance in Meteorites 1.4e-06
Abundance in Earth"s Crust 9.9e-06
Abundance in Oceans 3×10-9%
Abundance in Humans 1.7e-06

Crystal Structure of Lead

The solid state structure of Lead is Face Centered Cubic.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

a b c
495.08 495.08 495.08 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alpha beta gamma
π/2 π/2 π/2

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group Name Fm_ 3m
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Space Group Number 225
Crystal Structure Face Centered Cubic

Lead Atomic and Orbital Properties

Lead atoms have 82 electrons and the electronic shell structure is <2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 4> with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 3P0.


Atomic Number 82
Number of Electrons (with no charge) 82
Number of Protons 82
Mass Number 207
Number of Neutrons 125
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level) <2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 4>
Electron Configuration 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p2
Valence Electrons 6s2 6p2
Oxidation State -4;-2;-1 1;2;3;4
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 3P0

Shell Structure of Lead - Electrons per energy level


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Ground State Electronic Configuration of Lead - neutral Lead atom

The ground state electronic configuration of Neutral Lead atom is 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p2. The portion of Lead configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as . For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used.This is important as it is the Valence electrons 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p2, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

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Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Lead

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Lead atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p6 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p2

Atomic Structure of Lead

Lead atomic radius is 154 pm, while it"s covalent radius is 147 pm.

Atomic Radius

154 pm (1.54 Å)

Atomic Volume 18.2716049383 cm3
Covalent Radius 147 pm (1.47 Å)
Van der Waals Radius 202 pm
Neutron Cross Section 0.171 σa/barns

Atomic Spectrum of Lead

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Lead Chemical Properties: Lead Ionization Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of Lead is 35.1 kJ/mol

Valence 4
Electronegativity 2.33
ElectronAffinity 35.1 kJ/mol

Ionization Energy of Lead

Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Lead

Ionization energy number Enthalpy - kJ/mol
1 715.6
2 1450.5
3 3081.5
4 4083
5 6640

Lead Physical Properties

Refer to below table for Lead Physical Properties

Density 11.34 g/cm3
Molar Volume 18.2716049383 cm3

Elastic Properties

Young Modulus 16 GPa
Shear Modulus 5.6 GPa
Bulk Modulus 46 GPa
Poisson Ratio 0.44

Hardness of Lead - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

Mohs Hardness 1.5 MPa
Vickers Hardness N/A
Brinell Hardness 38.3 MPa

Lead Electrical Properties

Lead is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties of Lead

Electrical Conductivity 4.8×106 S/m
Resistivity 2.1×10-7 m Ω
Superconducting Point 7.2

Lead Heat and Conduction Properties

Thermal Conductivity 35 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion 0.0000289 K-1

Lead Magnetic Properties

Magnetic Type Diamagnetic
Curie Point N/A
Mass Magnetic Susceptibility -1.5×10-9
Molar Magnetic Susceptibility -3.11×10-10
Volume Magnetic Susceptibility -1.7e-05

Optical Properties of Lead

Refractive Index N/A

Acoustic Properties of Lead

Speed of Sound 1260 m/s

Lead Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Lead

Melting Point 600.61 K (327.46 °C)
Boiling Point 2022 K (1749 °C)
Critical Temperature N/A
Superconducting Point 7.2

Enthalpies of Lead

Heat of Fusion 4.77 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization 178 kJ/mol
Heat of Combustion N/A

Lead Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Lead

Isotopes of rhodium. Naturally occurring Lead has 4 stable isotope - 204Pb, 206Pb, 207Pb, 208Pb.


Isotope Isotope Mass % Abundance T half Decay Mode
178Pb
179Pb
180Pb
181Pb
182Pb
183Pb
184Pb
185Pb
186Pb
187Pb
188Pb
189Pb
190Pb
191Pb
192Pb
193Pb
194Pb
195Pb
196Pb
197Pb
198Pb
199Pb
200Pb
201Pb
202Pb
203Pb
204Pb 1.4% Stable N/A
205Pb
206Pb 24.1% Stable N/A
207Pb 22.1% Stable N/A
208Pb 52.4% Stable N/A
209Pb
210Pb
211Pb
212Pb
213Pb
214Pb
215Pb

Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

CAS Number CAS7439-92-1
RTECS Number RTECSOF7525000
DOT Hazard Class N/A
DOT Numbers 3077
EU Number N/A
NFPA Fire Rating 0
NFPA Hazards N/A
NFPA Health Rating 2
NFPA Reactivity Rating 0
Autoignition Point N/A
Flashpoint N/A

Database Search

List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

Database Identifier number
CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) CAS7439-92-1
CID Number CID5352425
Gmelin Number N/A
NSC Number N/A
RTECS Number RTECSOF7525000

Compare Lead with all Group 14 elements

Lead vs Carbon Lead vs Silicon Lead vs Germanium Lead vs Tin Lead vs Flerovium

Compare Lead with all post-transition metal elements

Lead vs Aluminium Lead vs Gallium Lead vs Indium Lead vs Tin Lead vs Thallium Lead vs Bismuth Lead vs Nihonium Lead vs Flerovium Lead vs Moscovium Lead vs Livermorium