Learning Objectives

Identify significant areas of problem in the breeze essay during revising and also editing. Use peer reviews and also editing checklists to help revising and editing. Revise and also edit the very first draft of her essay and produce a last draft.

Revising and also editing room the two tasks you wear to considerably improve her essay. Both are really important aspects of the composing process. You may think the a completed very first draft method little improvement is needed. However, also experienced writers require to boost their drafts and rely on peers during revising and also editing. Friend may understand that athletes miss catches, fumble balls, or overshoot goals. Dancers forget steps, revolve too slowly, or miss beats. Because that both athletes and dancers, the an ext they practice, the more powerful their performance will certainly become. Web designers seek far better images, a more clever design, or a much more appealing background because that their net pages. Writing has actually the very same capacity to profit from innovation and revision.

You are watching: During the revising stage in the writing process, the author _____.

Understanding the purpose of Revising and also Editing

Revising and also editing enable you to examine two important aspects of your composing separately, so the you can offer each job your undivided attention.


How execute you obtain the ideal out of your revisions and editing? right here are some strategies that authors have developed to look at their first drafts indigenous a fresh perspective. Try them over the course of this semester; then keep using the persons that lug results.

take a break. You room proud of what friend wrote, yet you could be also close come it to make changes. Set aside your composing for a couple of hours or also a day till you can look in ~ it objectively. Ask someone you to trust for feedback and constructive criticism. Pretend girlfriend are one of your readers. Room you satisfied or dissatisfied? Why? usage the resources that her college provides. Discover out where your school’s writing lab is located and also ask around the aid they carry out online and in person.

Many people hear the words critic, critical, and criticism and pick increase only negative vibes the provoke feelings the make castle blush, grumble, or shout. However, together a writer and also a thinker, you need to learn to be crucial of yourself in a positive method and have high expectation for her work. You likewise need to train your eye and also trust your ability to deal with what requirements fixing. Because that this, you have to teach yourself wherein to look.

Creating Unity and Coherence

Following her outline carefully offers friend a reasonable guarantee that your writing will continue to be on purpose and also not drift away from the controlling idea. However, once writers are rushed, space tired, or cannot discover the right words, their creating may end up being less than they desire it to be. Their writing might no longer be clear and concise, and also they might be adding information the is not required to build the main idea.

When a piece of writing has actually unityA quality in which all the concepts in a paragraph and also in the whole essay clearly belong and are i ordered it in an order that renders logical sense., all the concepts in every paragraph and in the entire essay clearly belong and also are i ordered it in an stimulate that makes logical sense. As soon as the writing has coherenceA high quality in which the wording of one work clearly indicates exactly how one idea leads to one more within a paragraph and from i to paragraph., the principles flow smoothly. The wording clearly indicates exactly how one idea leads to an additional within a paragraph and from i to paragraph.


Reading your writing aloud will certainly often assist you find difficulties with unity and also coherence. Hear for the clarity and flow of her ideas. Identify places where you find yourself confused, and also write a keep in mind to you yourself about possible fixes.

Creating Unity

Sometimes authors get caught up in the moment and cannot withstand a great digression. Even though you might enjoy such detours as soon as you chat v friends, unplanned digressions usually harm a item of writing.

Mariah continued to be close to her outline once she drafted the 3 body paragraphs of she essay she tentatively title “Digital Technology: The Newest and the best at What Price?” yet a recent shopping expedition for an HDTV uncomfortable her enough that she digressed from the main topic of her third paragraph and also included comments around the sales employee at the electronics store she visited. As soon as she revised her essay, she deleted the off-topic sentence that influenced the unity of the paragraph.

Read the complying with paragraph twice, the very first time there is no Mariah’s changes, and also the second time v them.


Exercise 1

Answer the following two questions about Mariah’s paragraph:

carry out you agree v Mariah’s decision to do the deletions she made? walk she cut too much, as well little, or simply enough? Explain. Is the explanation the what display resolution means a digression? Or is that audience friendly and essential to understanding the paragraph? Explain.


Please share through a classmate and compare her answers.


When friend reread your composing to find revisions come make, look because that each kind of difficulty in a separate sweep. Read it right through when to locate any problems with unity. Read it straight through a second time come find problems with coherence. You may follow this same practice during plenty of stages of the composing process.

Writing at Work

Many providers hire copyeditors and proofreaders to help them develop the cleanest possible final drafts of huge writing projects. Copyeditors room responsible for arguing revisions and also style changes; proofreaders examine documents for any kind of errors in capitalization, spelling, and also punctuation that have crept in. Many times, these jobs are done on a freelance basis, v one freelancer functioning for a selection of clients.

Creating Coherence

Careful writers use transitionsWords and phrases that present how the ideas in sentences and paragraphs space related. To clarify how the concepts in your sentences and also paragraphs are related. This words and also phrases help the writing flow smoothly. Adding transitions is not the only means to improve coherence, however they are regularly useful and also give a mature feel to your essays. Table 8.3 "Common Transitional Words and also Phrases" teams many typical transitions follow to their purpose.

Table 8.3 common Transitional Words and Phrases

Transitions That display Sequence or Time
after before later
afterward before long meanwhile
as quickly as finally next
at first first, second, third soon
at last in the very first place then
Transitions That display Position
above across at the bottom
at the top behind below
beside beyond inside
near next to opposite
to the left, to the right, come the side under where
Transitions That display a Conclusion
indeed hence in conclusion
in the last analysis therefore thus
Transitions That continue a line of Thought
consequently furthermore additionally
because besides the fact following this idea further
in addition in the exact same way moreover
looking further considering…, the is clean that
Transitions That adjust a heat of Thought
but yet however
nevertheless on the contrary on the various other hand
Transitions That present Importance
above all best especially
in fact more important most important
most worst
Transitions That introduce the final Thoughts in a i or Essay
finally last in conclusion
most that all least that all last the all
All-Purpose Transitions to open up Paragraphs or to attach Ideas inside Paragraphs
admittedly at this point certainly
granted it is true generally speaking
in general in this situation no doubt
no one denies obviously of course
to it is in sure undoubtedly unquestionably
Transitions that introduce Examples
for instance for example
Transitions that Clarify the order of events or Steps
first, second, third generally, furthermore, finally in the very first place, also, last
in the first place, furthermore, finally in the an initial place, likewise, lastly

After Maria revised for unity, she next examined her paragraph about televisions to inspect for coherence. She looked for locations where she essential to add a transition or probably reword the message to do the circulation of concepts clear. In the variation that follows, she has already deleted the sentences that were turn off topic.


Many writers make your revisions on a published copy and then transfer them to the variation on-screen. They traditionally use a tiny arrow referred to as a caret (^) to present where come insert an addition or correction.


Exercise 2

Answer the adhering to questions around Mariah’s revised paragraph.

do you agree v the transitions and other changes that Mariah do to her paragraph? Which would you keep and which to be unnecessary? Explain. What shift words or phrases did Mariah include to her paragraph? Why go she pick each one? What result does adding additional sentences have actually on the coherence of the paragraph? Explain. As soon as you read both version aloud, i m sorry version has actually a more logical circulation of ideas? Explain.

Being Clear and Concise

Some authors are very methodical and also painstaking when they write a first draft. Various other writers unleash a many words in order to acquire out all the they feeling they need to say. Do either that these creating styles enhance your style? Or is her composing format somewhere in between? No issue which description ideal fits you, the an initial draft of nearly every piece of writing, no issue its author, can be made fingerprint and much more concise.

If you have a tendency to write too much, friend will need to look for unnecessary words. If you have a tendency to be vague or imprecise in your wording, you will must find details words come replace any kind of overly general language.

Identifying Wordiness

Sometimes writers use too many words when fewer words will appeal more to your audience and better fit their purpose. Right here are some common examples of wordiness come look because that in her draft. Eliminating wordiness helps all readers, due to the fact that it provides your principles clear, direct, and straightforward.

Sentences that start with There is or There are.

Wordy: There space two major experiments the the Biology department sponsors.

Revised: The Biology room sponsors two significant experiments.

Sentences through unnecessary modifiers.

Wordy: Two incredibly famous and also well-known customer advocates spoke eloquently in favor of the proposed necessary legislation.

Revised: 2 well-known customer advocates spoke in favor of the suggest legislation.

Sentences with deadwood phrases that add tiny to the meaning. Be cautious when you use phrases such together in terms of, with a mental to, on the topic of, as to even if it is or not, more or less, as much as…is concerned, and similar expressions. You deserve to usually uncover a an ext straightforward method to state your point.

Wordy: as a human being leader in the ar of eco-friendly technology, the firm plans to focus its efforts in the area that geothermal energy.

A report as to whether or not to usage geysers as an energy source is in the procedure of preparation.

Revised: together a civilization leader in environment-friendly technology, the firm plans to emphasis on geothermal energy.

A report around using geysers together an energy resource is in preparation.

Sentences in the passive voice or with develops of the verb to be. Sentences v passive-voice verb often create confusion, due to the fact that the subject of the sentence go not do an action. Sentences space clearer once the subject of the sentence performs the action and is complied with by a strong verb. Use solid active-voice verbs in ar of forms of to be, which have the right to lead come wordiness. Protect against passive voice when you can.

Wordy: It could perhaps be said that utilizing a GPS machine is something the is a advantage to chauffeurs who have a negative sense the direction.

Revised: using a GPS maker benefits drivers who have a poor sense of direction.

Sentences v constructions that have the right to be shortened.

Wordy: The e-book reader, i beg your pardon is a current invention, may become as commonplace together the cell phone.

My over-sixty uncle purchase an e-book reader, and his mam bought one e-book reader, too.

Revised: The e-book reader, a current invention, may become as commonplace as the cabinet phone.

My over-sixty uncle and his wife both bought e-book readers.

Exercise 3

Now return once an ext to the very first draft of the essay you have been revising. Examine it for unnecessary words. Shot making your sentences together concise as they have the right to be.

Choosing Specific, ideal Words

Most university essays have to be written in formal English perfect for an academic situation. Follow these ethics to be certain that your word selection is appropriate. For an ext information around word choice, check out Chapter 4 "Working with Words: Which native Is Right?".

Avoid slang. Find choices to bummer, kewl, and also rad. Avoid language the is too many casual. Write around “men and also women” rather than “girls and also guys” unless you space trying to create a particular effect. A formal ton calls because that formal language. Avoid contractions. use do not in ar of don’t, I am in ar of I’m, have not in ar of haven’t, and so on. Contractions are taken into consideration casual speech. Avoid clichés. Overused expression such together green v envy, face the music, better late 보다 never, and similar expressions are empty of definition and might not very nice one to her audience. Be careful when you use words the sound alike but have different meanings. Some instances are allusion/illusion, complement/compliment, council/counsel, concurrent/consecutive, founder/flounder, and historic/historical. Once in doubt, examine a dictionary. Choose words with the connotations girlfriend want. selecting a word for its connotations is as important in official essay composing as it is in all kinds of writing. To compare the hopeful connotations of the word proud and the negative connotations the arrogant and conceited. Use certain words fairly than overly basic words. uncover synonyms because that thing, people, nice, good, bad, interesting, and other vague words. Or use particular details come make her exact an interpretation clear.

Now review the revisions Mariah make to do her third paragraph clearer and much more concise. She has already incorporated the alters she make to boost unity and also coherence.


Exercise 4

Answer the following questions around Mariah’s modification paragraph:

review the unrevised and also the amendment paragraphs aloud. Describe in your very own words how alters in word choice have impacted Mariah’s writing. Perform you agree v the alters that Mariah made to her paragraph? Which alters would girlfriend keep and which were unnecessary? Explain. What other changes would you have actually made? What impact does removed contractions and the pronoun you have on the ton of the paragraph? how would girlfriend characterize the ton now? Why? now return once much more to her essay in progress. Read very closely for difficulties with native choice. Be sure that your draft is written in official language and that her word choice is details and appropriate.

Completing a Peer Review

After functioning so carefully with a item of writing, writers often need come step earlier and ask for a more objective reader. What writers many need is feedback from reader who deserve to respond just to the words on the page. When they space ready, writers show their drafts to someone they respect and who can provide an honest response around its strengths and weaknesses.

You, too, have the right to ask a peer to check out your draft once it is ready. After evaluating the feedback and also assessing what is many helpful, the reader’s feedback will help you once you revise your draft. This process is dubbed peer reviewThe process in i beg your pardon a writer allows a peer to read and also evaluate a draft..

You deserve to work through a partner in your class and also identify particular ways to strengthen each other’s essays. Although you may be uncomfortable sharing your writing at first, remember that each writer is working toward the same goal: a last draft that fits the audience and the purpose. Maintaining a positive perspective when giving feedback will put you and your companion at ease. The box that follows provides a valuable framework because that the peer evaluation session.

Questions because that Peer Review

Title that essay: ____________________________________________

Date: ____________________________________________

Writer’s name: ____________________________________________

Peer reviewer’s name: _________________________________________

This essay is about____________________________________________. Your main points in this essay are____________________________________________. What I most liked around this essay is____________________________________________.

These 3 points win me as your strongest:

Point: ____________________________________________

Why: ____________________________________________

Point: ____________________________________________

Why: ____________________________________________

Point: ____________________________________________

Why: ____________________________________________

These locations in your essay are not clear to me:

Where: ____________________________________________

Needs innovation because__________________________________________

Where: ____________________________________________

Needs advancement because ____________________________________________

Where: ____________________________________________

Needs innovation because ____________________________________________

The one additional change you could make the would improve this essay substantially is ____________________________________________.

Writing at Work

One the the reasons why word-processing programs develop in a reviewing attribute is the workgroups have come to be a usual feature in plenty of businesses. Creating is frequently collaborative, and also the members that a workgroup and also their supervisors frequently critique group members’ work and offer feedback that will result in a far better final product.

Exercise 5

Exchange essays with a classmate and also complete a peer review of each other’s draft in progress. Mental to provide positive feedback and to it is in courteous and also polite in your responses. Emphasis on giving one hopeful comment and also one question for an ext information come the author.

Using Feedback Objectively

The purpose of peer feedback is to get constructive criticism of her essay. Her peer reviewer is your first real audience, and also you have actually the opportunity to learn what confuses and also delights a reader so the you have the right to improve your work prior to sharing the last draft v a more comprehensive audience (or your intended audience).

It may not be vital to combine every referral your peer reviewer makes. However, if you start to observe a sample in the responses you receive from peer reviewers, you could want to take the feedback into factor to consider in future assignments. Because that example, if friend read consistent comments around a require for more research, climate you may want to think about including more research in future assignments.

Using Feedback native Multiple Sources

You can get feedback from more than one leader as girlfriend share different stages of her revised draft. In this situation, you may receive feedback from reader who do not know the assignment or who lack your involvement with and also enthusiasm for it.

You must evaluate the responses you obtain according to two crucial criteria:

determine if the feedback support the function of the assignment. Identify if the suggested revisions are appropriate to the audience.

Then, utilizing these standards, expropriate or reject revision feedback.

Exercise 6

Work v two partners. Go back to keep in mind 8.81 "Exercise 4" in this lesson and also compare your responses to task A, about Mariah’s paragraph, v your partners’. Recall Mariah’s purpose for writing and her audience. Then, functioning individually, list wherein you agree and also where friend disagree around revision needs.

Editing your Draft

If you have actually been incorporating each set of revisions together Mariah has, girlfriend have produced multiple drafts of your writing. Therefore far, all your transforms have been contents changes. Probably with the help of peer feedback, you have actually made certain that girlfriend sufficiently sustained your ideas. You have actually checked for difficulties with unity and coherence. You have actually examined your essay for word choice, revising to cut unnecessary words and also to replace weak wording with details and appropriate wording.

The following step after revising the contents is editing. As soon as you edit, you research the surface functions of her text. You study your spelling, grammar, usage, and also punctuation. You additionally make certain you usage the suitable format when creating your perfect assignment.


Editing often takes time. Budgeting time into the writing process allows you come complete extr edits after ~ revising. Editing and proofreading your writing helps you develop a finished work-related that to represent your finest efforts. Right here are a couple of more tips to remember about your readers:

Readers perform not notification correct spelling, however they do notification misspellings. Readers look previous your sentence to obtain to your ideas—unless the sentences are awkward, poorly constructed, and also frustrating to read. Readers an alert when every sentence has the exact same rhythm as every various other sentence, v no variety. Readers carry out not cheer once you usage there, their, and they’re correctly, however they an alert when you do not. Readers will notification the treatment with i m sorry you taken on your assignment and also your fist to detail in the distribution of an error-free document..

The an initial section that this book offers a advantageous review of grammar, mechanics, and also usage. Use it to aid you eliminate significant errors in your writing and refine your knowledge of the conventions of language. Perform not hesitate to ask for help, too, indigenous peer tutors in your scholastic department or in the college’s composing lab. In the meantime, use the checklist to help you edit your writing.


Editing her Writing


space some sentences actually sentence fragments? are some sentences run-on sentences? How can I exactly them? carry out some sentences require conjunctions in between independent clauses? go every verb agree v its subject? Is every verb in the exactly tense? space tense forms, specifically for irregular verbs, written correctly? have I supplied subject, object, and possessive an individual pronouns correctly? have actually I used who and whom correctly? Is the antecedent of every pronoun clear? execute all an individual pronouns agree v their antecedents? have I used the correct comparative and superlative forms of adjectives and also adverbs? Is it clean which indigenous a participial expression modifies, or is the a dangling modifier?

Sentence Structure

space all mine sentences straightforward sentences, or do I vary my sentence structure? have I chosen the finest coordinating or object conjunctions to join clauses? have actually I developed long, overpacked sentence that need to be shortened for clarity? carry out I see any kind of mistakes in parallel structure?


walk every sentence finish with the correct end punctuation? deserve to I justify the usage of every exclamation point? have actually I used apostrophes correctly to create all singular and also plural possessive forms? have actually I supplied quotation point out correctly?

Mechanics and Usage

have the right to I find any kind of spelling errors? How can I exactly them? have I used resources letters whereby they are needed? have I created abbreviations, wherein allowed, correctly? have the right to I find any errors in the usage of generally confused words, such as to/too/two?


Be careful about relying too much on assignment checkers and grammar checkers. A assignment checker cannot identify that you intended to write principle but wrote principal instead. A grammar checker regularly queries build that are perfectly correct. The regime does not know your meaning; it renders its check versus a general set of formulas that might not use in every instance. If you usage a grammar checker, accept the suggestions that make sense, however consider why the suggestions came up.


Proofreading requires patience; that is very easy to read previous a mistake. Collection your document aside for at the very least a few hours, if not a job or more, so your mind will rest. Some skilled proofreaders check out a message backward so they can concentrate top top spelling and also punctuation. Another helpful technique is to gradually read a file aloud, paying fist to every word, letter, and also punctuation mark.

If girlfriend need extr proofreading help, asking a reliable friend, a classmate, or a peer guardian to make a final pass on your document to look because that anything girlfriend missed.


Remember come use suitable format when developing your perfect assignment. Occasionally an instructor, a department, or a university will require students to follow certain instructions ~ above titles, margins, page numbers, or the place of the writer’s name. These requirements might be much more detailed and rigid for research study projects and term papers, which frequently observe the American mental Association (APA) or contemporary Language association (MLA) layout guides, specifically when citations of resources are included.

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To certain the format is correct and also follows any certain instructions, do a final check before you send an assignment.

Key Takeaways

Revising and editing are the step of the writing procedure in which you boost your work prior to producing a last draft. During revising, girlfriend add, cut, move, or adjust information in stimulate to enhance content. Throughout editing, you take a second look at the words and sentences you provided to express your ideas and fix any type of problems in grammar, punctuation, and also sentence structure. Unit in writing way that all the principles in every paragraph and also in the entire essay clearly belong together and also are arranged in an stimulate that renders logical sense. Coherence in writing means that the writer’s wording plainly indicates just how one idea leader to another within a paragraph and also between paragraphs. Transitional words and phrases successfully make writing more coherent. Writing need to be clear and concise, with no unnecessary words. Reliable formal writing offers specific, proper words and avoids slang, contractions, clichés, and also overly basic words. Peer reviews, done properly, can offer writers target feedback about their writing. The is the writer’s obligation to evaluate the results of peer reviews and also incorporate only helpful feedback. Mental to budget time for mindful editing and proofreading. Use all obtainable resources, including editing and enhancing checklists, peer editing, and also your institution’s composing lab, to boost your editing and enhancing skills.