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John F. Kennedy(1956)John F. Kennedy had long been interested in the topic of politics courage, beginning with his an elderly thesis at Harvard. The thesis, later on published as Why England Slept, was a research of the fail of brothers political leader in the 1930s to oppose renowned resistance to rearming, leave the nation ill-prepared for human being War II. Kennedy’s choice to the home in 1946 and the sdrta.net in 1952 gave him an individual experience in managing the conflicting pressures the legislators face. When Kennedy took a leaving of lack from the sdrta.net in 1954 to recoup from back surgery, it provided him the chance to study the subject of political courage. The project resulted in the publication of file in Courage, which concentrates on the careers that eight senators who Kennedy felt had shown great courage under substantial pressure from your parties and their constituents. His own battles v physical pain and also his experience in human being War II together a PT watercraft commander also gave that inspiration. The topics of profiles in Courage room John Quincy Adams, Daniel Webster, thomas Hart Benton, Sam Houston, Edmund G. Ross, Lucius Lamar, George Norris, and also Robert A. Taft. Every chapter native the book is summarized below.

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John Quincy Adams pertained to the sdrta.net together a Massachusetts Federalist in 1803. That quickly broke with his party, however, once he to be the single Federalist to vote in donate of the Louisiana Purchase. Adams ongoing voting versus his party, however it to be not until 1807 that the final split between Adams and also the Federalists occurred. The year, cutting board Jefferson dubbed upon conference to spreading an embargo against great Britain to shut off worldwide trade come retaliate versus British aggression towards American merchant ships. The embargo would certainly have had a disastrous effect upon the economic climate of Massachusetts. Adams agreed v Jefferson and helped command the embargo invoice to its enactment right into law. This was in straight opposition come the Federalists, who had been following a ideology of appeasement towards the British. A storm of protest ensued and also Adams resigned from his seat in 1808.
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Daniel Webster to be a Massachusetts city council (Whig) and one of the most identified members in sdrta.net history. His trial by fire started in 1850 when he i agreeed to assist Henry Clay that Kentucky press through a damage bill that would save the Union together. Webster’s famed “Seventh the March” decided in donate of Clay’s deteriorate bill asserted the slaveholders to be entitled to building rights, the fugitive slave legislations should it is in strengthened, and that the problem of slavery should be put aside in bespeak to save the Union together at every costs. The decided enraged his constituents and ended his career together a Senator, due to the fact that Webster knew that his speech would certainly make him unelectable in Massachusetts thereafter. ~ above July 22, 1850, Webster resigned from the sdrta.net to end up being secretary the state.
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Thomas Hart Benton, senator native Missouri, was had in the publication primarily for his actions in 1847-1849 against John C. Calhoun"s resolutions to save Congress native interfering through the advent of enslavement in brand-new territories. Return Missouri to be a slave-owning state, and Benton self owned slaves, he was deeply protest to the arrival of enslavement into new territories. Benton was involved that the problem was gift exploited by Southern and Northern partisans and would be a barrier to west expansion. Calhoun succeeded in acquiring legislators native slave-owning states, consisting of the rest of the Missouri delegation, to back his resolutions. Benton"s refusal to poll for Calhoun"s resolutions price him the popularity he previously had in his state, and he was stripped of all of his committee memberships except Foreign Relations. In 1850, Benton to be still opposed to the series of measures well-known as the an excellent Compromise and also did not hesitate to make his feelings well-known in the strongest possible terms. However, Benton was constantly called out of order by Vice chairman Millard Fillmore, the presiding officer. Top top April 17, 1850, when Fillmore dubbed Benton the end of order again, debate came to be so heated that Benton was almost shot by Henry Foote of Mississippi. Benton was voted the end of office in 1851, went back to Congress in 1853 together a representative, however lost his seat in 1855 and also spent the continuing to be years of his life fruitlessly seek a go back to public office. Back his uncompromising was standing on prohibiting slavery in brand-new territories ended his politics career, the wisdom that Benton"s opinion was borne the end a few years later and also was one of the determinants that maintained Missouri from seceding indigenous the Union.
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Sam Houston earned his location in profiles in ship by his refuse to assistance the Kansas-Nebraska action of 1854. This invoice repealed the Missouri compromise of 1820 and would have permitted the inhabitants of territories from Iowa come the Rocky hills to decision the slavery problem themselves. A Southerner by birth and one the the very first two senators indigenous Texas, Houston felt the the plot would additional divide the Union. Transparent the 1840s, Houston had upset many Southern democracy by tangling v the powerful John C. Calhoun, saying the Calhoun to be trying to destroy the Union by presenting his "hands off" enslavement legislation. The "last straw" to be Houston"s vote versus the Kansas-Nebraska Act. He to be the only Southern Democrat to poll no. Houston"s constituents were furious and also rumors the his political death were rampant. No one to engage in a protective fight, Houston announced his setup to operation for branch of Texas as an independent if he was still in the sdrta.net. In spite of his oratorical gifts and sheer physical presence, the citizens of Texas did no forget his "anti-Southern" vote versus the Kansas-Nebraska Act. Houston was beat for the governorship and was dismissed indigenous the sdrta.net by the Texas legislative branch in 1857. However, two years later on he was asked to come the end of retirement to again run for branch of Texas, and also his choice was a significant setback to southerly pro-slavery extremists. In February 1861, despite Houston"s valiant do the efforts to prevent it, the Texas legislature voted come secede native the Union. His refuse to take it the oath that allegiance to the Confederacy resulted in his ouster as branch in in march 1861.
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Edmund Ross, a Kansas Republican, actors the deciding vote that finished the impeachment proceedings against President Andrew Johnson. The proceedings began due to the fact that doctrinaire "Radical Republicans," then in manage of the sdrta.net, happen a Tenure that Office action to stop a chairman from firing cabinet members without sdrta.net consent. This to be done to shot to prevent Johnson indigenous firing Secretary of battle Edwin Stanton. Johnson thought Stanton was a device of the Radicals that wanted to develop a military dictatorship in the South. Johnson feel the wiser course would certainly be to rebuild the Confederate states back into the Union as conveniently as feasible without unnecessary army intervention, as Lincoln had intended. Once Johnson fired Stanton, the impeachment began. The home voted because that impeachment and the psychological then relocated to the sdrta.net. As the trial walk on it ended up being clear the the Republicans had actually no on purpose of offering Johnson a same trial; rather, their focus was on convincing enough senators to find Johnson guilty. Ross was overheard saying the while he had actually no sympathy for Johnson, that would perform his best to watch that the was fairly tried. Since Ross had previously to be such a partisan Republican, he came to be the major target of abuse from the press, the public, and his other Republican legislators. Nonetheless, Ross voted versus convicting Johnson, reasoning that if a president could be required out the office by insufficient proof that was based on partisan disagreement, the presidency would certainly then it is in under the manage of everything congressional faction hosted sway. Ross"s action unleashed sewage criticism. Neither he nor any other Republican that voted come acquit Andrew Johnson was reelected to the sdrta.net, and Ross and his household suffered ostracism and poverty top top their return to Kansas in 1871. Eventually, Ross to be vindicated by the can be fried Court, which asserted the Tenure that Office action to it is in unconstitutional, and also praised by the press and also the publicly for having actually saved the country from dictatorship.
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Lucius Lamar, Democrat from Mississippi, provided a eulogy on the residence floor as a freshman representative in 1874 ~ above the death of city council Charles Sumner the Massachusetts. Sumner to be hated by many Southerners since of his opposition to slavery and also his vehemence in denouncing slaveholders. In 1856 Sumner to be brutally caned ~ above the sdrta.net floor by Representative call Brooks of south Carolina. Later in his career Sumner"s views in the direction of the south became much more moderate. Lamar"s eulogy, i m sorry praised Sumner"s desire because that unity between North and South, was a sensation and many in the southern felt the a betrayal. In 1876, Lamar was chosen to the sdrta.net and also once again plot in opposition to his constituents and also his party when he agreed come the findings of an choice commission that provided the presidency come Republican Rutherford Hayes. The commission"s findings were controversial, yet Lamar felt the acquiescing come them would stave off an additional sectional controversy that can have meant more bloodshed. He further alienated the people of Mississippi as soon as he vote against free silver measures that would have enriched the state in the quick run. However, Lamar preserved his sdrta.net seat till 1885, when he resigned to become secretary that the interior and also finally, a justice of the supreme Court.
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George Norris, a Republican from Nebraska, an initial came to national attention in 1910 together a young representative. He presented a revolutionary resolution that would strip speaker Joe Cannon of lot of his strength by acquisition away his government to choose committee members and also their chairmen and by removing the speaker from the rule Committee. Come everyone"s surprise, Norris was able to get sufficient votes to pass his resolution for a rule change, and the strength of "Czar" Cannon began to wane. This move made him incredibly unpopular through Cannon, as well as with some other members that the Nebraska delegation, and showed early on that Norris was no afraid to wake up to an effective individuals. In January 1917, president Woodrow Wilson asked conference to authorize him to arm American seller ships, numerous of which had been searched and also sunk regardless of the truth that the United states was still officially neutral in the war at that time. Back Wilson"s inquiry was automatically popular with the American public, Norris and also Wisconsin councilor Robert La Follette fought versus the measure. Norris was an isolationist and also a pacifist that felt the Wilson"s invoice was a ruse by huge business to acquire the united States right into the war in Europe, and also believed Wilson was trying to stampede the public right into pressuring the sdrta.net to happen his bill and enter the war. La Follette and also Norris filibustered the bill and kept the from passing, however their victory was short-lived: Wilson proclaimed that executive power already included the right to eight ships without congressional approval. Norris to be the only member of the Nebraska delegation to vote versus passage that the bill and he to be excoriated on every side. He composed the branch of Nebraska and also offered come resign native the sdrta.net, saying the if the people of Nebraska no longer felt that he was representing castle adequately, he have to step down. Norris traveled throughout Nebraska to explain his views to his constituents, and also in the end, the governor asserted that he would not ask because that a distinct election. Norris touched off a firestorm the criticism in 1928 once he, a "dry" Republican, backed Al Smith, a Catholic Democrat that was anti-Prohibition, because that president quite than Herbert Hoover, the Republican candidate. Smith"s liberal views touched a chord in Norris, who felt that the only place for steady Republicans prefer him was in the blacksmith camp, fairly than v Hoover, who Norris felt was owned by monopolistic strength companies. Norris went on to offer in the sdrta.net until his loss for re-election in 1942.

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Robert A Taft, the kid of wilhelm Howard Taft, was known as "Mr. Republican": a conservative"s conservative, through presidential aspirations. Taft do a decided at Kenyon college in October 1946 referred to as "Equal righteousness Under Law" in which the strongly protest the Nuremberg battle Crimes Trials that were simply ending. The defendants were the architects of the Nazi routine who had been uncovered guilty that waging a war of aggression and had been sentenced come death. Come Taft, the defendants were being do the efforts under ex write-up facto regulations (laws that apply retroactively, especially those which criminalize an activity that was legal once it was committed). These legislations are expressly forbidden in the U.S. Structure (Article I, section 9 and section 10). Taft regarded the Constitution as the structure of the American mechanism of justice and felt that discarding its principles in order to punish a defeated enemy the end of vengeance to be a dig wrong. Speaking out against the Nuremberg Trials appeared quixotic in ~ best and also unpatriotic in ~ worst. He was pilloried in the press, by his constituents, by legit experts, and also by his other senators ~ above both sides of the aisle. The autumn from the speech may have likewise played a small component in his not successful presidential bid in 1948. However, Taft therefore strongly believed in the wisdom that the Constitution the speaking out was more important 보다 his an individual ambitions or popularity. Plenty of years later, wilhelm O. Douglas that the supreme Court agreed with Taft"s view that the Nuremberg Trials were an unconstitutional usage of ex article facto laws.