Home > Evidence managing Procedures > species of proof > Class and Individual Characteristics

All proof bears course characteristics. Individual features may or may not be present.

Evidence the possesses class qualities may be described as class evidence. Similarly, proof that own individual attributes may be described as separation, personal, instance evidence.

Both class and individual proof have value; however, it typically takes considerably much more class evidence (and time because that collection and analysis) to have actually the exact same weight and also significance as a single item of separation, personal, instance evidence.

Criminal cases based specifically on class evidence are more difficult to prove and require an ext work, but the results can be simply as significant. To put it in perspective, in regards to probative value in the courtroom, it typically takes a considerable mix of class evidence come equate come a single item of separation, personal, instance evidence.


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Class and also Individual attributes
CharacteristicDefinitionExamples
Class Characteristics

Measurable attributes of things that indicate a limited group resource based on style factors determined prior come manufacture

May be presented to be like or consistent with a doubted source, although not uniquely identifiable through that source

Width of the reminder of a screwdriver Width of land and groove impressions
*

Example of landsand grooves

Bloodstain
Subclass Characteristics

Discernible surface functions of an object, more restrictive than course characteristics

Produced incidental come manufacture

Refer come a smaller sized group resource (a subset that the course to which they belong)

May arise native a resource that changes over time

Marks on things produced through a grind wheel or sanding belt. Manufacturing marks ~ above a team of Ruger firearms
*

Manufacturing point out on agroup of Ruger firearms

Greg Scala, FDLE, Orlando, FL

Blood type
Individual characteristics

Marks on things produced by the random imperfections or person who is abnormal on the surfaces of the tools supplied to to produce the object

Produced incidental come the manufacturing process and commonly seen at microscope level