Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris)

Beautiful and dangerous night hunter, in hazard of extinction. Bengal Tiger is one of the greatest representatives of big cats. The Bengal tiger is the most renowned of every tiger species. Endangered, the Bengal tiger is Bangladesh’s nationwide animal. Conservationists room trying to save the species, however the biggest difficulties for Bengal tiger populations remain humans. One of the oldest ancestors of the Bengal tiger is the saber-toothed tiger (Smilodon). They live thirty-five million year ago. Lock are some of the more quickly wild cat fossils uncovered to date from twenty-five million years ago in Europe.

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Some close loved ones of the tiger room the leopard and jaguar. The earliest tiger fossils, two million year old, have been uncovered in China. It is thought that Bengal tigers arrived in India about twelve thousand year ago, because no fossils that this animal have been uncovered in the area until that time.

Classification

Kingdom: AnimaliaPhylum: ChordataClass: MammaliaOrder: CarnivoraFamily: FelidaeSubfamily: PantherinaeGenus: PantheraSpecies: Panthera tigrisSubspecies: Panthera tigris tigris
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Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris).

Population

The populaces of the Bengal tiger have been approximated at 1,706–1,909 in India, 440 in Bangladesh, 163–253 in Nepal and also 67–81 in Bhutan. Due to the fact that 2010, it has actually been classified together an threatened species. The total population is estimated at fewer than 2,500 individuals with a diminish trend, and also none the the Tiger preservation Landscapes in ~ the Bengal tiger’s selection is huge enough to support an effective populace size of 250 adult individuals.

Characteristics

Coat

The Bengal tiger’s cloak is yellow to irradiate orange, v stripes ranging from dark brown come black; the belly and the internal parts the the limbs room white, and the tail is orange v black rings.

Size

Male Bengal tigers have an average total length of 270 come 310 cm (110 come 120 in) including the tail, when females measure 240 to 265 cm (94 come 104 in) top top average. The tail is frequently 85 to 110 centimeter (33 come 43 in) long, and on average, tigers are 90 come 110 cm (35 come 43 in) in elevation at the shoulders. The average weight of males is 221.2 kg (488 lb), while that of females is 139.7 kg (308 lb). The smallest recorded weights for Bengal tigers room from the Bangladesh Sundarbans, whereby adult females room 75–80 kg (170–180 lb).

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Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris).

The best Bengal tigers

Two tigers shot in Kumaon and near Oude in ~ the end of the 19th century accused measured more than 12 ft (370 cm). But at the time, sportsmen had actually not yet adopted a standard mechanism of measurement; some would certainly measure between pegs when others would round the curves.

At the beginning of the 20th century, a masculine Bengal tiger was shot in central India with a head and also body length of 221 centimeter (87 in) between pegs, a chest girth the 150 cm (59 in), a shoulder elevation of 109 cm (43 in) and a tail length of 81 cm (32 in), which was probably bitten off by a competitor male. This specimen can not be weighed, however it to be calculated to weigh no less than 272 kg (600 lb).

A heavy male weighing 570 lb (260 kg) was shot in north India in the 1930s. However, the heaviest known tiger was a vast male killed in 1967 that weighed 388.7 kg (857 lb) and also measured 322 cm (127 in) in total length in between pegs, and also 338 cm (133 in) over curves. This specimen is top top exhibition in the Mammals hall of the Smithsonian Institution. In 1980 and 1984, scientists captured and also tagged 2 male many tigers in Chitwan nationwide Park the weighed more than 270 kg (600 lb).

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Bengal tigers (Panthera tigris tigris).

Distribution and habitat

In the Indian subcontinent, many tigers inhabit dry moist evergreen forests, tropical dried forests, tropical and subtropical moist deciduous forests, mangroves, subtropical and temperate upland forests, and alluvial grasslands. Last tiger habitat as soon as covered a huge swath the grassland and riverine and also moist semi-deciduous forests together with the major river mechanism of the Gangetic and Brahmaputra plains, but has now been mostly converted to agriculture or severely degraded.

Today, the best examples that this habitat type are restricted to a couple of blocks at the basic of the outer foothills of the Himalayas.

India (the complete tiger population has been estimated at 1,411 individuals ranging native 1,165 come 1,657 adult and also sub-adult tigers of much more than 1.5 years of age)Bangladesh (as that 2004, population estimates in Bangladesh ranged indigenous 200 come 419, mainly in the Sunderbans)Nepal (by 2010, the variety of adult tigers had reached 155)Bhutan (the populace in Bhutan is estimated at 67–81 individuals)
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Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris).

Hunting and victims

Tigers are carnivores. They like hunting huge ungulates such together chital, sambar, gaur, and to a lesser extent likewise barasingha, water buffalo, nilgai, serow and takin. Among the medium-sized food species, they generally kill wild boar, and occasionally hog deer, muntjac and also Gray langur. Little prey species such together porcupines, hares and peafowl kind a very small part of your diet. Because of the intervention of humans into your habitat, they likewise prey on residential livestock.

In many cases, tigers approach their victim native the next or behind from together close a distance as possible and master the prey’s neck to death it. Then they drag the carcass right into cover, periodically over several hundred meters, come consume it. The nature that the tiger’s hunting method and prey ease of access results in a “feast or famine” feeding style: they frequently consume 18–40 kilograms (40–88 lb) that meat at one time.

Bengal tigers have been recognized to take other predators, such together leopards, wolves, jackals, foxes, crocodiles, Asiatic black color bears, sloth bears, and dholes together prey, although these predators space not typically a component of their diet. Adult elephants and rhinoceroses are too huge to be properly tackled by tigers, but such extremely rare events have to be recorded. The Indian hunter and also naturalist Jim Corbett explained an incident in which two tigers fought and also killed a huge bull elephant. If injured, old or weak, or their regular prey is coming to be scarce, they might even assault humans and also become man-eaters

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Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris).

Reproduction and also lifecycle

Males with maturity in ~ 4–5 year of age, and also females in ~ 3–4 years. A tigress come into warmth at intervals of around 3–9 weeks, and is receptive for 3–6 days. After a gestation duration of 104–106 days, 1–4 cubs space born in a shelter situated in tall grass, thick shrub or in caves. Child cubs sweet 780 to 1,600 g (1.7 to 3.5 lb) and also they have actually thick wooly hair that is shed after 3.5–5 months.

Their eyes and ears are closed. Their milk teeth begin to erupt at about 2–3 weeks after ~ birth, and are progressively replaced by long-term dentition indigenous 8.5–9.5 weeks of age onwards. Castle suckle because that 3–6 months, and begin come eat little amounts of heavy food at about 2 months of age. In ~ this time, they follow their mother on her hunting expeditions and begin to take component in hunting at 5–6 months of age.

At the age of 2–3 years, they progressively start to separate from the family group and also become transient — looking the end for an area, whereby they can develop their own territory. Young males move more away from their mother’s territory than young females. Once the household group has split, the mom comes into warmth again.

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Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris).

Human-tiger relationship and also conflict

Tiger assaults are one extreme form of human-wildlife conflict, which happen for various reasons and also have claimed much more human resides than strikes by any kind of of the other big cats. The most considerable study the deaths as result of tiger attacks estimates that at least 373,000 civilization died as result of tiger assaults between 1800 and 2009, the bulk of this attacks emerging in South and also Southeast Asia.

In southeast Asia, assaults gradually decreased after peaking in the nineteenth century, but attacks in south Asia have remained high, specifically in the Sundarbans (the largest single block of tidal halophytic mangrove forest in the world – 6000 sq. Km).

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Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris).

Data/Size

Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris)Length:males: 270 – 310 cm (110 – 120 in), max. 370 centimeter (12 ft)females: 240 – 265 cm (94 – 104 in)Height: 90 – 110 centimeter (35 – 43 in)Tail: 85 – 110 cm (33 – 43 in)Weight: up come 325 kg (717 lb)males: 180 – 258 kg (397 – 569 lb), the heaviest Bengal tiger weight 388.7 kg (857 lb) after enjoy the meal (calf), and also 325 kg (717 lb) before mealfemales: 100 – 160 kg (220 – 350 lb), on median 139 kg (307 lb).
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Bengal tigers (Panthera tigris tigris).

Bengal tiger – curiosities

In 2010, the Bengal tiger was classified together an intimidated species. The biggest threats room habitat destruction and poaching to acquire beautiful skins and other human body parts.The the smallest Bengal tiger uncovered weighed 75-80 kg (female).Tiger eye is 6 times far better than a human.The tiger’s searching method, depending upon the quantity of food available, have the right to be explained with the phrase: “Feast or hunger” – in one fell swoop he have the right to eat 18 – 40 kg that meat. After such a hefty meal, the pet might not eat because that the next 3 weeks.Although the tiger is a woodland predator, the does not climb trees.The Bengal tiger is the national pet of India and also Bangladesh.Bangladeshi banknotes function a tiger.The politics party Muslim league of Pakistan uses the tiger as its election symbol.A tiger attributes on the logo design of the Reserve financial institution of India.German hefty tank Tiger II to be informally known as Königstiger (German because that Bengal tiger).The Bengal tiger has showed up many time in cinematography – most recently in the struggle movie “Life the Pi” (2012). This film plainly shows that the tiger always remains a wild and dangerous cat, regardless of the situation, that can eat its guardian…Earlier this year in Mexico, throughout a circus performance, a Bengal tiger assaulted his handler by stabbing his teeth right into his neck. In prior of the terrified spectators, he started to drag the trainer roughly the arena. It take it a few minutes for the trainer’s assistants to drive the large cat away. Unfortunately, it was also late for the trainer … he passed away on the means to the hospital.

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Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris).

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