External Reproductive Organs

Penis and also Prepuce 

The stallion’s penis is composed of 3 parts: (1) the root or bulb, (2) the human body or shaft, (the key part), and also (3) the glans, the enlarged complimentary end that the penis. As soon as not erect, the prick is 50 cm long and 2.5 to 6 cm in diameter v the distal finish 15 come 20 cm complimentary in the prepuce. When erect, the dick doubles in length and also thickness and the glans rises by 3 come 4 times. The prepuce or sheath is a dual invagination the the skin the covers the distal part of the cock when no erect. Check of the penis and prepuce is most conveniently excellent at the moment of washing. Allow the stallion to strategy the mare in order to be created to allow down, at which time the cock extends indigenous the sheath. Practice caution since some stallions might be reluctant to it is in examined and cow kick or kick backwards in ~ the examiner. Be mindful to protect everyone involved. Study the penis and also prepuce both manually and also visually. Grasp the shaft of the penis just behind the glans. Examine the urethral process for lesions and the linked structures for debris or other international material. The examination proceeds up the obelisk where any kind of injuries, scars or various other lesions room noted. With the cock exposed, examine the internal and also external section of the prepuce. Normally a small amount of greasy smegma is discovered at the basic of the penis. Any type of trauma or injury come the cock or prepuce have the right to be really detrimental to the stallion’s capability to covering a mare and could an outcome in lengthy term mental problems. This is particularly true if the stallion is kicked by the mare when attempting to breed her. Trauma can additionally occur by improper managing of man-made vaginas.

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Scrotum

The scrotum is one outpouching the skin in the inguinal area the encloses the testes. It has a longitudinal midline where the two sacs room fused. The scrotum might be examined at the time of washing or ~ ejaculation, which might be safer for anyone involved. The stallion’s scrotum is not as pendulous as a bull’s and also is held closer come the abdomen. The scrotum’s skin is soft and pliable v a greasy texture due to sebaceous glands. The scrotum is necessary in thermoregulation the the testicles.

Testicles and Epididymides

The testes room ovoid structures, measuring 8 come 12 cm lengthy by 6 to 7 cm high by 5 centimeter wide. Lock consist of seminiferous tubules in i beg your pardon spermatogenesis occurs and interstitial tissues of i beg your pardon the Leydig cells create testosterone. The testicles must be freely movable in ~ the scrotal sac. The epididymides are separated into 3 parts: (1) head; (2) body and (3) tail. The head that the epididymis is very closely attached come the testicle’s anterior dorsal aspect. The body of the epididymis continues along the testicle’s back side till it terminates in ~ the rather big tail the the epididymis that is loosely attached come the testicle’s tail. The testes and also epididymides room palpated through the scrotal wall surface to determine their presence, size, symmetry and consistency. The typical stallion has two testes. Palpation need to reveal that they have the very same consistency v no abnormalities of shape or texture. The right testis is generally slightly smaller than the left. Determine testicular dimension by measure scrotal width of both testicles. Measure scrotal width making use of calipers at the suggest of greatest width through a nonerect penis. Scrotal width is positively associated with day-to-day sperm production and output. Regular scrotal widths range from 9 come 13 cm. Stallions older than 7 year of period tend to have better scrotal widths than younger stallions. Particular medications, particularly androgens, adversely influence testicular size. Cryptorchidism is common in stallions and its genetic regulate is not fully understood. The left testicle is the one most frequently retained. Congenital cryptorchid stallions need to not be thought about for breeding.

Internal Reproductive Organs
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The ductus deferens is the sdrta.net of the epididymis and runs from the tail that the epididymis with the inguinal canal to the area that the neck the the bladder. The duct increases near the bladder to kind the ampulla which acts together a sperm warehouse organ.

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Accessory Sex Glands

The vesicular glands, prostate gland and bulbourethral glands are jointly called the accessory sex glands. Lock all administer a portion of the seminal fluid, however are not vital for fertility. This glands are typically rectally palpated. The vesicular glands are usually the most difficult to palpate since before teasing lock are essentially collapsed. However, ~ vigorous teasing, the motor enlarge because of the build-up of the gels portion and are easier to palpate. This is why it may be an ext desirable to palpate after ~ teasing, yet on the other hand, most stallions are an ext tractable complying with ejaculation. So, time the rectal examination is largely at the examiner’s discretion.