AP Biology assist » Cellular biologic » Cell attributes » Cellular division » understanding Meiosis
Explanation:

Gametes are haploid cells that created via meiosis. During meiosis, diploid cell divide right into four nonidentical haploid daughter cells. Mitosis to produce two identical diploid somatic cells from one parent cell.


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Explanation:

Meiosis outcomes in cells v 23 chromosomes (22 autosomes and 1 sex chromosome). Keep in mind that these cells are haploid because n=23, and also nonidentical, as result of crossing over during prophase I.

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Explanation:

Gametes space made via meiosis i beg your pardon produces cells through n=23 rather of diploid cells. If gametes were created instead by mitosis each gamete would certainly be diploid not haploid. During fertilization of diploid gametes, the zygote would become 4n=92. V each new generation the number of chromosomes would double.


Explanation:

In biology, the ax “ploidy” describes the variety of chromosome sets every cell. Haploid cells have fifty percent of the variety of chromosomes as parent cells, an interpretation that castle only carry a solitary copy of every gene. Haploid cells space formed throughout meiosis and, in humans, produce gametes, i m sorry mature into sperm and also egg cells.


Explanation:

Diploid cell contain two duplicates of each chromosome, because of this containing twice as plenty of (2n) chromosomes together a haploid cabinet (n), i m sorry contain just one copy of every chromosome. In humans, diploid somatic cell contain 46 chromosomes, or 23 bag of chromosomes.


Explanation:

Trisomy 21, or under syndrome results once a human individual inherits three duplicates of chromosome 21, rather of the normal two duplicates (one maternal and also one paternal). This is brought about by nondisjunction, or the improper segregation of chromosomes during cell division. In the case of trisomy 21, nondisjunction leader to a fail of chromosome 21 segregation throughout meiosis (most that the time throughout anaphase I). This results in one of two people an egg or sperm delivering two copies of chromosome 21 rather of one. The zygote created by fertilization develops into an separation, personal, instance that has actually three duplicates of chromosome 21. Trisomy 21 manifests in physical growth delays, pundit disabilities, and also distinctive face features. 


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Example question #37 : knowledge Meiosis


Which molecular system is not a feasible cause that nondisjunction?


Possible Answers:

Maternal gametes have actually a greater chance of exhibiting nondisjunction


Error in cytoplasmic partitioning


Older period of one individual leads to weaker cohesin complexes in ~ the centromere


Failure to pass the spindle assembly checkpoint


Correct answer:

Error in cytoplasmic partitioning


Explanation:

Nondisjunction is the improper distinction of chromosomes during meiosis or mitosis. The molecular reasons behind nondisjunction are (1) increased rate the nondisjunction in female cells, (2) failure to appropriately pass the spindle assembly checkpoint, and also (3) weakening the the cohesion complicated at the centromere because of age.


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Example inquiry #38 : expertise Meiosis


Which of the adhering to organisms perform not perform meiosis?


Possible Answers:

Mammals


Flowering plants


Bacteria


Mosses


Correct answer:

Bacteria


Explanation:

Meiosis is a process that produce gametes in sexual reproduction. Therefore, organisms that undergo sexual reproduction or attribute sexual life stages undergo meiosis. Mammals create haploid sperm and also eggs with meiosis, which fuse to form a diploid zygote. In mosses, reproduction is dubbed the alternation the generations, definition that generations alternate between haploid and diploid forms. In this system, meiosis produces haploid spores during the sporophyte generation, i beg your pardon germinate to form gametophyte precursors. In flower plants, cells in male and female sexual organs undergo meiosis to kind precursor sex cells, referred to as spores. Prokaryotes, consisting of bacteria, carry out asexual reproduction that does not include the process of meiosis. Types of asexual reproduction incorporate fission, budding, and fragmentation. In the case of bacteria, cells reproduce by binary fission, or cellular department without mitotic spindles.


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Example inquiry #39 : knowledge Meiosis


What enzyme aids in chromosomal crossing over throughout prophase i of meiosis?


Possible Answers:

Recombinase


DNA polymerase


Protein kinase


DNA ligase


Correct answer:

Recombinase


Explanation:

During crossing end in prophase ns of meiosis, over there is a physics exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes. This exchange occurs at the website of dual stranded breaks, where recombinase enzyme facilitate the invasion of the various other chromatid. The original strand and also invading strand anneal complying with this invasion. Once this happens between two chromosomes, the strands type a tetrahedral plan called a Holliday junction. Other recombinase enzymes move the junction under the strands, furthering recombination.


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Example concern #40 : expertise Meiosis


What is the term for the structural plan of chromatids undergoing cross over during meiosis?


Possible Answers:

Holliday junction


Kinetochore


Telomere


Equatorial plane


Correct answer:

Holliday junction


Explanation:

During prophase ns of meiosis, homologous chromosomes exchange genetic material in a process called crossing over. Double stranded breaks and also recombinase enzyme facilitate chromatid invasion and also annealing. The tetrahedral structure formed through strand invasion between two chromosomes is called the Holliday junction.


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