l>Chapter 10: Review
Bureaucracy and Bureaucrats The simple characteristics that specify the concept of administration are found in practically all organizations, whether public or private, armed forces or religious, for benefit or nonprofit. Most establishments are bureaucracies, and also most of their employees are bureaucrats. Why do bureaucracies exist and also why are they needed? administration is nothing more than a kind of organization defined by specific attributes, consisting of a division of labor, allocation the functions, allocation the responsibility, supervision, full-time employment, and worker careers within the organization. Administration literally method "rule by desks," in other words, a federal government by clerks. The goals of a bureaucracy are efficiency and productivity, i beg your pardon are acquired through specialization and repetition of tasks. Administrations are created in government to lug out a broad variety of tasks, to carry out necessary services, and also to action as specialists in particular areas the policy. Regardless of the general id that the federal bureaucracy has grown too huge and unresponsive, the dimension of the federal bureaucracy has remained stable end the previous 25 years, and also has actually declined when contrasted to the size of the civilian labor force or the increase in federal spending. What functions do federal government bureaucrats perform? Bureaucrats connect with each other, maintain paper for accountability, analyze the law, and implement the goals of the organization. Congress has delegated a significant amount of government to the federal bureaucracy by granting agencies the strength to draft federal regulations (rule-making) and also to adjudicate conflicts over this regulations. Is the federal bureaucracy representative the the population? before 1883, bureaucrats were political appointees—a an outcome of the spoils system. The assassination of chairman Garfield in 1881 resulted in the passage of the Civil business Act that 1883, which created a merit system for the rental of commonwealth bureaucrats. Today, the federal bureaucracy more closely mirrors the sociological composition of the nation than any type of other branch the the commonwealth government. The organization of the executive, management Branch What space the agencies that comprise the executive, management branch? The federal bureaucracy consists the the room departments, elevation agencies, government corporations, and independent regulatory commissions. The cabinet departments are headed by a secretary (except the exemption of the room of Justice, i m sorry is top by the attorney general), yet it is the office level the is responsible for communicating with the public. Independent organ exist exterior the structure of the cabinet departments and also carry out attributes that room too costly for the personal sector (e.g., NASA). Federal government corporations (e.g., the U.S. Postal Service and AMTRAK) space designed to run prefer businesses and hopefully generate a profit. Independent regulatory commissions regulate some element of society (e.g., the Federal communications Commission regulates the broadcast media). How have the right to one classify these agencies according to their missions? one of the many important activities of the federal administration is come promote the general public welfare (e.g., the department of Health and Human Services and the Food and Drug Administration). Clientele agencies bring out functions that benefit a certain group or clientele (e.g., the department of Agriculture, Labor, Education, and also Veterans Affairs). Agencies for the regulate of the Union are of three types: those that manage federal revenue (e.g., the department of Commerce, the commonwealth Reserve System, and also the IRS), those that carry out internal nationwide security (e.g., the FBI and the department of Justice), and also those the defend versus external risks (e.g., the CIA and also the departments of State and Defense). Regulation agencies do rules which lug the force of legislation over people and also businesses. Amongst them room the Food and Drug administration (FDA) and the Federal communications Commission (FCC). Redistributive agencies—those concerned with fiscal, monetary, and also welfare policy—transfer money between the public and private spheres and also influence spending and also investment. The Treasury Department and the federal Reserve mechanism are fiscal agencies; social Security, Temporary help to Needy family members (TANF), and also Medicaid are welfare agencies. regulating the Bureaucracy: Reinvention, Reduction, and Control Can federal government be made an ext responsive and efficient? The 1993 national Performance review was design to do the commonwealth government more efficient, accountable, and effective. Vice president Al Gore led in the initiative to reinvent government. By the finish of 1999, the initiative had created a save of $136 billion dollars.

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Conference oversight has increased end time, making certain that administrations serve your intended functions.