As you should remember native the kinetic molecular theory, the molecules in solids room not relocating in the very same manner together those in liquids or gases. Heavy molecules merely vibrate and also rotate in ar rather than move about. Solids are generally held with each other by ionic or strong covalent bonding, and the attractive forces between the atoms, ions, or molecules in solids are really strong. In fact, these forces are so strong that corpuscle in a solid are organized in fixed positions and have very tiny freedom the movement. Solids have definite shapes and definite volumes and are no compressible to any type of extent.

There space two key categories of solids—crystalline solids and amorphous solids. Crystalline solids space those in i beg your pardon the atoms, ions, or molecules that consist of the hard exist in a regular, well-defined arrangement. The the smallest repeating sample of crystalline solids is well-known as the unit cell, and also unit cell are prefer bricks in a wall—they space all identical and also repeating. The other main kind of solids are referred to as the amorphous solids. Amorphous solids carry out not have much bespeak in your structures. Though your molecules are close together and also have little freedom to move, they room not i ordered it in a consistent order as space those in crystalline solids. Common examples of this kind of solid are glass and plastics.

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There room four varieties of crystalline solids:

Ionic solids—Made increase of hopeful and an unfavorable ions and also held with each other by electrostatic attractions. They’re characterized by an extremely high melting points and also brittleness and also are poor conductors in the hard state. An example of one ionic solid is table salt, NaCl.

Molecular solids—Made increase of atom or molecules held together by London dispersion forces, dipole-dipole forces, or hydrogen bonds. Identified by low melt points and also flexibility and also are negative conductors. An instance of a molecular solid is sucrose.

Covalent-network (also referred to as atomic) solids—Made increase of atoms associated by covalent bonds; the intermolecular pressures are covalent bonds together well. Characterized as being very hard with very high melt points and also being negative conductors. Instances of this type of solid space diamond and also graphite, and also the fullerenes. As you deserve to see below, graphite has actually only 2-D hexagonal structure and also therefore is not hard like diamond. The sheets of graphite are hosted together by just weak London forces!


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Metallic solids—Made increase of metal atoms that are hosted together by metallic bonds. Defined by high melt points, can range from soft and malleable to very hard, and are great conductors of electricity.

CRYSTAL frameworks WITH CUBIC UNIT CELLS (From https://eee.uci.edu/programs/gsdrta.net/RDGcrystalstruct.pdf)Crystalline solids space a three dimensional collection of individual atoms, ions, or totality molecules organized in repeating patterns. These atoms, ions, or molecules are referred to as lattice points and are frequently visualized together round spheres. The two dimensional great of a solid are created by packing the lattice allude “spheres” right into square or closed packed arrays. (See Below).

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figure 1: Two feasible arrangements for the same atoms in a 2-D structure

Stacking the 2 dimensional layers on peak of each other creates a 3 dimensional lattice allude arrangement stood for by a unit cell. A unit cell is the smallest collectionof lattice point out that have the right to be repetitive to develop the crystalline solid. The solid can be envisioned as the an outcome of the stacking a an excellent number the unit cells together. The unit cabinet of a solid is identified by the kind of great (square or near packed), the way each successive layer is placed on the class below, and the coordination number because that each lattice point (the variety of “spheres” touching the “sphere” of interest.)

Primitive (Simple) Cubic Structure place a 2nd square selection layer directly over a first square array layer forms a "simple cubic" structure. The straightforward “cube” appearance of the result unit cell (Figure 3a) is the basis for the name of this 3 dimensional structure. This packing plan is often symbolized together "AA...", the letters describe the repeating order of the layers, starting with the bottom layer. The coordination variety of each lattice allude is six. This becomes evident when inspecting part of an nearby unit cell (Figure 3b). The unit cabinet in number 3a appears to contain eight edge spheres, however, the total number of spheres in ~ the unit cabinet is 1 (only 1/8th that each ball is in reality inside the unit cell). The staying 7/8ths of each edge sphere stays in 7 adjacent unit cells.

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The considerable an are shown between the spheres in numbers 3b is misleading: lattice clues in solids touch as displayed in number 3c. Because that example, the distance in between the centers the two surrounding metal atom is same to the sum of their radii. Refer again to figure 3b and also imagine the nearby atoms room touching. The edge of the unit cell is then equal to 2r (where r = radius the the atom or ion) and the worth of the confront diagonal together a role of r can be uncovered by using Pythagorean’s theorem (a2 + b2 = c2) to the best triangle developed by two edges and a face diagonal (Figure 4a). Reapplication of the theorem to one more right triangle produced by one edge, a face diagonal, and the body diagonal permits for the determination of the body diagonal as a role of r (Figure 4b).

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Few metals embrace the straightforward cubic structure because of inefficient use of space. The thickness of a crystalline solid is concerned its "percent packing efficiency". The packing performance of a straightforward cubic structure is only around 52%. (48% is north space!)

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Body focused Cubic (bcc) Structure A more efficiently pack cubic framework is the "body-centered cubic" (bcc). The an initial layer of a square array is broadened slightly in all directions. Then, the second layer is change so its spheres nestle in the spaces that the very first layer (Figures 5a, b). This repeating stimulate of the class is regularly symbolized together "ABA...". Like number 3b, the considerable an are shown between the spheres in figure 5b is misleading: spheres are very closely packed in bcc solids and also touch follow me the body diagonal. The packing performance of the bcc framework is around 68%. The coordination number for an atom in the bcc framework is eight. Exactly how many full atoms are there in the unit cell because that a bcc structure? attract a diagonal heat connecting the 3 atoms marked with one "x" in number 5b. Presume the atoms significant "x" room the very same size, strictly packed and touching, what is the value of this human body diagonal as a function of r, the radius? uncover the edge and also volume the the cell together a duty of r.

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Cubic Closest pack (ccp) A cubic closest pack (ccp) framework is developed by layering close pack arrays. The spheres of the second layer nestle in half of the spaces that the an initial layer. The spheres that the 3rd layer directly overlay the other fifty percent of the an initial layer spaces while hide in fifty percent the spaces the the second layer. The repeating order of the layers is "ABC..." (Figures 6 & 7). The coordination variety of an atom in the ccp structure is twelve (six nearest neighbors plus three atoms in layers over and below) and also the packing effectiveness is 74%.

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number 6: nearby packed array Layering. The first and third layers are stood for by irradiate spheres; the 2nd layer, dark spheres. The second layer spheres nestle in the spaces that the 1st layer significant with an “x”. The third layer spheres nestle in the spaces of the second layer thatdirectly overlay the spaces significant with a “·” in the 1st layer.

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number 7a & 7b: 2 views the the Cubic Close pack Structure

If the cubic nearby packed structure is rotated by 45° the face centered cube (fcc) unit cell have the right to be viewed (Figure 8). The fcc unit cell includes 8 edge atoms and an atom in each face. The challenge atoms are common with an surrounding unit cabinet so every unit cell includes ½ a face atom. Atom of the face centered cubic (fcc) unit cabinet touch throughout the challenge diagonal (Figure 9). What is the edge, confront diagonal, body diagonal, and volume that a face focused cubic unit cell together a role of the radius?

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number 8: The face focused cubic unit cell is attracted by cut a diagonal plane through one ABCA packing plan of the ccp structure. The unit cell has 4 atoms (1/8 of each corner atom and ½ that each face atom).

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number 9a:Space filling model of fcc. Figure 9b: The challenge of fcc. Face diagonal = 4r.

Ionic Solids In ionic compounds, the bigger ions come to be the lattice suggest “spheres” that room the frame of the unit cell. The smaller ions nestle into the depressions (the “holes”) between the bigger ions. There space three species of holes: "cubic", "octahedral", and also "tetrahedral". Cubic and also octahedral holes occur in square range structures; tetrahedral and octahedral holes appear in close-packed range structures (Figure 10). I beg your pardon is normally the bigger ion – the cation or the anion? How deserve to the routine table be used to guess ion size? What is the coordination variety of an ion in a tetrahedral hole? one octahedral hole? a cubic hole?

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number 10. Holes in ionic crystals are more like "dimples" or "depressions" in between theclosely pack ions. Tiny ions deserve to fit right into these holes and also are surrounding by larger ionsof the contrary charge.

The kind of hole developed in one ionic solid mainly depends ~ above the ratio of the smaller sized ion’s radius the larger ion’s radius (rsmaller/rlarger). (Table 1).

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Empirical Formula of an Ionic Solid Two ways to identify the empirical formula of one ionic hard are: 1) from the variety of each ion had within 1 unit cabinet 2) indigenous the proportion of the coordination numbers of the cations and anions in the solid.

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Example: discover the empirical formula because that the ionic compound shown in figures 11 & 12.

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First Method: when using the an initial method, remember most atoms in a unit cell are mutual with other cells. Table 2 lists types of atoms and the fraction contained in the unit cell. The variety of each ion in the unit cabinet is determined: 1/8 of each of the 8 edge X ions and also 1/4 of each of the 12 edge Y ion are found within a single unit cell. Therefore, the cell contains 1 X ion (8/8 = 1) for every 3 Y ions (12/4 = 3) offering an empirical formula of XY3. Which is the cation? anion? when writing the formula that ionic solids, which comes first?

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Second Method: The second an approach is less reliable and requires the check of the crystal framework to recognize the number of cations neighboring an anion and also vice versa. The structure have to be broadened to include more unit cells. Figure 12 shows the exact same solid in number 11 broadened to four adjacent unit cells. Check of the structure mirrors that there space 2 X ion coordinated come every Y ion and also 6 Y ions surrounding every X ion. (An additional unit cell must be projected in former of the page to check out the 6th Y ion ). A 2 come 6 ratio gives the exact same empirical formula, XY3.