When external power is given to atoms, several of them change their energy levels. We call this state the atom as; exited state. For example, adhering to electron configuration belong come 8O, one of them is soil state and also other one is exited state.

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1s22s22p4 : "ground state"

1s22s22p33s1 : "exited state"

Elements room in ground states many of the time. As soon as we solve examples you should constantly take lock in floor state.

Showing electrons in Orbitals (sub shells)

We display orbitals with complying with shape;






Capacity of every orbital is 2 electrons. We can also show electrons in orbitals as adheres to ;






There are some rules for placing electrons in orbitals. Because that example, electrons must be placed orbitals having actually same power level one through one. If orbitals space not filled through electrons, you can not pass another energy level. Look at the following figure that shows variety of orbitals in each sub level s, p, d, f;














Examine following instances to know placing electron in orbitals.

1. 5B: 1s22s22p1






2. 6C: 1s22s22p2






3. 7N: 1s22s22p3






4. 8O: 1s22s22p4






Spherical Symmetry

Spherical symmetry provides atom much more stable. Half filled or to fill orbitals present us spherical symmetry.

s : 1e- or 2e-

p : 3e- or 6e-

d : 5e- or 10e-

f: 7e- or 14e-

Orbitals s, p, d, f have provided electrons above, has spherical symmetry.

7N=1s22s22p3 ns orbital has actually 3 electrons, for this reason N has actually spherical symmetry.

8O=1s22s22p4 p orbital has 4 electrons, for this reason O has NO spherical symmetry.

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Electron construction of Ions

If electron is bound to neutral atom, atom becomes negatively fee ion. Us calculate total number of electrons and make electron configuration.